As well as being an ideal textbook, Biological Wastewater Treatment in Warm Climate Regions is an important reference for practising professionals such as engineers, biologists, chemists and environmental scientists, acting in consulting companies, water authorities and environmental agencies. Wastewater Characteristics, Treatment and Disposal is the first volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, presenting an integrated view of water quality and wastewater treatment. The book covers the following topics: - wastewater characteristics flow and major constituents - impact of wastewater discharges to rivers and lakes - overview of wastewater treatment systems - complementary items in planning studies.
This book, with its clear and practical approach, lays the foundations for the topics that are analysed in more detail in the other books of the series. Basic Principles of Wastewater Treatment is the second volume in the series Biological Wastewater Treatment, and focusses on the unit operations and processes associated with biological wastewater treatment.
The major topics covered are: - microbiology and ecology of wastewater treatment - reaction kinetics and reactor hydraulics - conversion of organic and inorganic matter - sedimentation - aeration. The theory presented in this volume forms the basis upon which the other books of the series are built. The major variants of pond systems are fully covered, namely: - facultative ponds - anaerobic ponds - aerated lagoons - maturation ponds. The book presents in a clear and informative way the main concepts, working principles, expected removal efficiencies, design criteria, design examples, construction aspects, operational guidelines and sludge management for pond systems.
This volume is an analytical summary and a critical synthesis of research at the International Water Management Institute over the past decade under its evolving research paradigm known popularly as 'more crop per drop'. The research synthesized here covers the full range of issues falling in the larger canvas of water-food-health-environment interface. Besides its immediate role in sharing knowledge with the research, donor, and policy communities, this volume also has a larger purpose of promoting a new way of looking at the water issues within the broader development context of food, livelihood, health and environmental challenges.
More crop per drop: Revisiting a research paradigm contrasts the acquired wisdom and fresh thinking on some of the most challenging water issues of our times. It describes new tools, approaches, and methodologies and also illustrates them with practical application both from a global perspective and within the local and regional contexts of Asia and Africa. Since this volume brings together all major research works of IWMI, including an almost exhaustive list of citations, in one single set of pages, it is very valuable not only as a reference material for researchers and students but also as a policy tool for decision-makers and development agencies.
Coastal lagoons are shallow water bodies separated from the ocean by a barrier e. Coastal lagoons are flexible and usually able to cope with environmental change, yet nowadays they are under threat. This is partly due to climate change impacts for example, sea-level rise and hydro-meteorological extreme events but also due to more direct human activities and pressures. The book focuses on addressing these challenges through integrated management strategies seen in a land-sea and science-stakeholder-policy perspective.
Pan-European management challenges are seen from the context of the perspectives of Policy, Environment and Modelling. Four case study lagoons in different geographical locations in Europe provide examples of some of the practical experiences and results around these challenges. Possible impacts on drainage basins and lagoons are introduced through integrated scenarios which were developed through a multi-science and land-lagoon science perspective combined with interactions and contributions from stakeholders and citizens.
Issues around climate change impacts on environmental conditions in both drainage basins and lagoons are also included. Editors: Ana I. The book presents a comprehensive up-to-date survey of wetland design techniques and operational experience from treatment wetlands. This book is the first and only global synthesis of information related to constructed treatment wetlands.
Types of constructed wetlands, major design parameters, role of vegetation, hydraulic patterns, loadings, treatment efficiency, construction, operation and maintenance costs are discussed in depth. History of the use of constructed wetlands and case studies from various parts of the world are included as well. Constructed Wetlands for Pollution Control will be indispensable for wastewater treatment researchers and designers, decision makers in public authorities, wetland engineers, environmentalists and landscape ecologists.
The project aims to enhance water resources and water supply, particularly in water stressed urban and peri urban areas in different parts of the Indian sub-continent. This project is co-funded by the European Union under the Seventh Framework FP7 scheme of small or medium scale focused research projects for specific cooperation actions SICA dedicated to international cooperation partner countries.
This book is a useful resource for teaching at Post Graduate level, for research and professional reference. In his foreword to this new book, Sir Vince Cable MP explains the importance of embracing the advancements of industrialisation whilst prioritising sustainability and pollution reduction, both in commercial and environmental interests.
Wealth Creation without Pollution is the culmination of several years of deliberations by academics and regulators, engaging with industrial and commercial sectors to characterise and quantify environmental problems and identify best practice solutions.
It is an abbreviated compilation of the wide range of scientific, engineering, health and operational issues concerned with the control of lead in drinking water in small water supply systems. It is an active research network and has regularly convened international conferences and seminars. Information about training, the Best Practice Guide and the research network in general is available from www. This Guide for Small Community Water Suppliers and Local Health Officials explains why lead in drinking water may still be a threat to public health in small communities.
It is aimed at Local Health Officials and the operators of drinking water supply systems that serve small communities. Its objectives are to raise awareness, to provide a basis for assessing the extent of problems, and to identify control options. Until recently only lipophilic compounds were analysed in any research on the occurrence of mutanogenic and carcinogenic compounds in water. They were isolated using XAD-resins. They contain approximately half of the total organic material present in water. A clear mutanogenic effect was demonstrated for these compounds using Amestest.
The hydrophilic fraction of the organic material was difficult to investigate because of problems with isolation and analysis caused by its high solubility. The high solubility means in practice that the hydrophilic compounds are mobile in conventional treatment systems and in soil and can easily penetrate into drinking water. A method was developed to isolate hydrophilic compounds using a combination of ion exchange and a clean-up with a XAD-resin. The isolated compounds were examined with the Amestest for the presence of mutanogenic compounds.
For some tested water types a mutanogenic effect was found in the lipophilic material. Due to oxidation with ozone, mutanogenic compounds can be formed from non-mutanogenic industrial pollutions. No mutanogenic activity was found in the hydrophilic organic material of all examined water types, even after ozone oxidation or chlorination. It was hypothesized that hydrophilic compounds can not reach the DNA of the cell, thus they do not play any geno toxicological role.
The nucleation index indicates at what rate calcium carbonate precipitation is accelerated by nuclei present in the water. The Study cautions that factors that need to be considered when exploiting such alternative sources, among others, are economic, environmental and social. Rainwater harvesting has been implemented in new housing development and government buildings in urban areas and has the potential of expansion on a more extensive scale. Uniform Building By-laws Amendment provides for Rainwater Harvesting and Utilisation system to be installed in bungalows and semi-detached houses with a roof area equivalent to or more than sq.
Case examples such as the 1 Utama New Wing building having a roof area of over 30, sq. The harvested rainwater usage is restricted to toilets flushing, air conditioning cooling towers, car park washing and landscape irrigation. With the integration of the water supply and wastewater sectors, the Recycling and Reuse of Wastewater poses a great opportunity and challenge to sustainable economic development under conditions of water scarcity. Wastewater reclamation is an attractive option for applications involving non-potable use such as in agriculture or in industries for cooling systems, boiler feed water, process water, site irrigation, fire protection, and in municipal use for cleaning purposes.
Based on the findings of the characteristics and following practices in other. If need be, a Cabinet Paper be tabled to resolve this issue. This wastewater contains pathogens that are dangerous to human health and thus proper treatment and management is crucial for human safety. The current practice for wastewater has traditionally been managed through large centralised treatment facilities in urban areas and septic tanks in rural areas. However, today, there is an array of innovative decentralised wastewater systems that collect and treat domestic wastewater on-site.
These systems sometimes offer benefits over conventional treatment because they reduce the need for energy and large infrastructure, provide recycled water for use on-site, and can be expanded to meet increasing demand. Under certain conditions, decentralised technologies may offer benefits over centralised technologies, but an array of different factors need to be considered.
The Study recommends that both systems be thoroughly reviewed from the view point of. Strategy 9 — Review Scope and Coverage of Sewerage Services to Ensure Proper Management of STP Effluent The national coverage policies need to address issues pertaining to the operations and management of all the approximately 8, units private and public STPs as poor management could result in pollution of rivers and water bodies. The Study recommends that sullage be part of the sewage to be treated in the existing STPs.
However, preliminary treatment before entering into the sewerage system should be provided and monitored. If the target is achieved in , the volume of water saved is likely to be Mld which represents a reduction of about The Study recommends the implementation of a holistic and systematic approach using Water Balance, a tool developed by the IWA which enables the evaluation of every component of NRW. Accurate and reliable data is essential to obtain a useful Water Balance. A sizeable component of NRW is water leakage.
Pipe replacement is an important asset replacement programme with the secondary benefit of NRW reduction. SPAN has. Success in Malacca and Penang were very much attributed to the high management. The Study suggests that standards of sewage treatment plant SWT effluents be improved to enable reuse while reducing pollution loading to rivers. Asset management plan is part of the NRW reduction programme. Funding is required for the implementation of NRW reduction and sustaining it. The following strategies are proposed for Asset Management: i Asset tagging and mapping; ii Proactive pipe replacement system; iii GIS for distribution system; and iv DMA establishment.
The following targets have been suggested for achievement by the industry: i Enforcing the development of WSP for all water and sewerage systems; ii Utilising WSP in improving operation and maintenance; iii Utilising WSP in budget for improvement works to reduce risk and enhance reliability and efficiency; and iv All water operators to adopt WSP which covers from source to tap. However, WSPs have not been implemented by the water operators. At the national level, an action plan is being implemented to initiate the development of. The Study recommended that the importance of WSP needed to be highlighted and adequate funding to be provided to water operators to develop and implement WSP.
The Study further recommends that a national steering committee be established on WSP to deal with legislative and judicial uncertainties, and the implementation programme. These technologies can be adopted, where applicable, as they have been known to be cost-effective and have been operated efficiently.
Legislation is required for uniform application of standards, building codes and water efficiency labelling schemes. Such products include water efficient WCs, showers, dishwashers, washing machines and efficient use of taps and restrictor valves. Efficiency labelling schemes are introduced to encourage manufacturers to produce efficient products which are recommended for use by consumers and users of water.
This is mandatory for new development projects and renovated buildings. SPAN has also encouraged the use of water efficient products by labelling. The purpose of labelling is to assist consumers to opt for products that use less amount of water but still provide satisfactory performance. However, SPAN has yet to make it a mandatory requirement. At the end of , two more appliances were added which are washing machine and showerheads.
The products are assessed based on usage efficiency for which star ratings are given. The more number of stars reflects more efficient use of water. When there is no significant price difference between a water-efficient and a standard appliance, it is often more expensive to retrofit the water Strategies for the Improvement of Water Supply and Wastewater Management Services in Malaysia.
This is where incentives in the form of a rebate programme can be effective in persuading existing house owners to retrofit water appliances. The rebate programme subsidises the adoption of water efficient devise by refunding the cost of the appliance partially or fully. It will encourage domestic consumers to purchase water saving devices when installing or retrofitting these appliances.
The rebate programme has yet to be introduced in Malaysia but is widely practiced in developed countries. The tendency for high consumption is largely related to the prevailing low water tariff rate in the country. There is a general consensus that the present pricing structure of treated water is low and this constraints effort for enhancing water demand management.
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To ensure water supply security over the long term, water services need to be restructured to enable the provision of affordable services on an equitable basis. Right pricing of water is an integral part of the water services reform initiatives. Labuan, that is robust, fair and transparent where information on costs and performance levels will be disclosed to consumers and users of water who will know what they are paying for.
In a way, relevant stakeholders will have a say in price increases which are not seen to be costly using a mechanism to capture fair and qualifying expenditure that is commensurate with the cost of providing it and the level of service being provided benefitting individuals and society. Meanwhile, water rates in Pulau Pinang have been increased from 1 April in a move to reduce consumption and avoid rationing according to Penang Water Supply Corporation Sdn Bhd. Should this be achieved or even surpassed, the volume of water saved in would be in the order of Mld for Peninsular Malaysia and Mld for Sarawak and Mld for Sabah.
The volume saved is sizeable. Based on an average operational cost per cubic metre for Malaysia estimated at around RM1. The Study supports the initiatives taken by SPAN for initiating a tariff setting mechanism that is robust, fair and transparent executed in consultation with consumers and users. In addition to engaging Water Forum which represents the interests of consumers, SPAN also continuously engages with the nongovernmental organisations and the business communities to obtain proposals and feedback before the implementation or drafting of any. Some of the water conservation initiatives taken by SPAN include: 4.
Schools should be the target group primarily because the future generation should be made aware of the importance of conservation.
In this case, SPAN itself has carried out several outreach programme in schools to educate the school children and deepen their understanding on the water cycle, the benefits of conservation and the need of a clean environment; and 4. In this way, intrinsic value of water is fully appreciated by the public as a whole. Unmitigated wastages of water on nonimportant activities during crisis should be penalised. The Study supports the initiatives taken by SPAN pertaining to Forum Air and also regarding innovative communication packages being explored not withstanding that in cases of persistent breaches or noncompliance, imposition of penalties should be applied without fear or favour.
The carrot and stick approach with continuous engagement with consumers and the public is the way forward. Water used by the majority of the consumers is not lucrative to be recycled as the price of water is cheap. Similarly, in the wastewater sector, as the quality of STP effluent improves, there are opportunities for reuse for nonpotable purposes and for industrial use by way of trade-off thereby providing some relief to the current water demand burden. Growing limitations in fresh water availability in the future would render the recycling and reusing effluents a viable option.
This is very much in line with the green initiatives currently being pursued by the government. These are: a Eco-tourism around high ecological value sites; b Urban water-based tourism; c Market and export high-quality water; d Clean water for aquaculture industry; e Malaysian brand for domestic water purification unit; f World-leading tropical aquatic research and education; g Knowledge export; h Downstream water tapping; i Rainwater harvesting; and j Zero pollutant discharge.
Need to develop a long-term strategy for water resources management to achieve water security; and Need for water-resources-rich states to protect their water catchments and develop them for export to water-stressed states. There are two categories of licensees or operators in the water supply and sewerage services industries. The trained personnel are mainly involved in plant processing, distribution pipeline and reservoir inspections and pump operation.
Extra duties may be required to. Variation to this would include expected level of service, level on outsourcing services by water operators and also level of automation of the facilities. The above ratio assumes level of service to be mainly provided by in-house manpower and some automation of facilities. The trained personnel should be subjected to continuous training to upgrade skills and knowledge.
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Their service conditions should be conducive enough for the experienced personnel to be retained in operational services. There must also be management commitment in WDM and in particular NRW investments in order to maintain achieved levels of NRW at all times and reduction in per capita consumption. For sewerage systems, operations include sewer maintenance, sewage treatment plant operations, and septage services. IWK as the national sewerage company provides services to 21 million population equivalent in most parts of Peninsula Malaysia excluding Kelantan, Johor Bahru and Pasir Gudang.
In non-IWK operational areas, the responsibility of operations is either taken up by the local government or private parties. IWK manages over six thousand sewage treatment plants which are connected via over 18, kilometer of sewers. The current skilled manpower ratio of IWK is approximately 1 per connected accounts. However, the ideal range is envisaged to be in the order of 1 per to customers for now and this ratio should be decreasing over time to get better customer care and attention.
Staff training in water supply and sewerage services has mostly been operationally related in nature or in other words, subjected to in-. It has taken a step further by offering their training to school leavers and operators from neighbouring countries. Building on this example, and as a matter of urgency, the Study recommends that government under the auspices of KeTTHA establishes centralised or regional training institutions in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak.
Strategy 21 — Enhancing Networking and International Cooperation The problems that beset water supply and wastewater management in Malaysia are not new. Globally, with dwindling fresh water supplies and poorly managed wastewater, the sustainable management of both water supply and wastewater has taken on a crucial profile.
Networking with regional and international organisations, such as UN Water and IWA, would enable the country to learn from experiences of other countries as well as share our own with them. Strategic alliances with renowned regional and international water supply and sanitation research centres need to be nurtured for mutual benefit. With the launch of the National Water Resources Policy NWRP , and as a matter of priority and for good governance, it is recommended that a National Water Services Policy NWSP is formulated which is consistent with the NWRP, ensures water supply security with the integration of water supply and sewerage services as well as fosters a cultural shift from hitherto water supply management dominance towards greater water demand management.
The integration of water supply and sewerage offers yet another opportunity for a holistic approach for optimal use of both raw. Needless to say, the successful implementation of such financial instruments requires strong political support and commitment. Technological instruments to ensure the mandatory use of water saving devices and appliances, consumer awareness campaigns as well as education programme are all part of the wide array of measures recommended for implementation on a sustained basis.
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The appropriation of adequate financial resources is equally vital to ensure speedy accomplishment of this undertaking. Strategy 11 - Water Safety Plans. Chapter Two: Malaysian Water Scenario Brief Overview of Issues and Challenges Strategies for the Improvement of Water Supply and Wastewater Management Services in Malaysia 3 Malaysian Water Scenario - Brief Overview of Issues and Challenges Growing population including the fairly large migrant population and urbanisation in Malaysia coupled with the fast pace of economic development has led to increased water use in all sub-sectors with resultant pollution of this finite and renewable yet vulnerable resource.
Prior to 6 Strategies for the Improvement of Water Supply and Wastewater Management Services in Malaysia vi their adoption, all information was duly validated with their respective sources; and To submit a report to ASM addressing items i - v above. There has not been a clear policy pertaining to sewerage services to guide the industry although Section 15 a of The National Water Services Commission Act mentioned a national policy objective for the sewerage industry. Strategies for the Improvement of Water Supply and Wastewater Management Services in Malaysia 7 ii iii iv v The trend of losses was evident from , possibly due to the cost incurred in paying for water production concessions in a number of states.
Water resource development--Malaysia. Sustainable Development Goal No. Universal and equitable access to safe and affordable drinking water for all, access to adequate sanitation and hygiene for all, substantial increase in water-use efficiency, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally, are some of the specific targets set for achievement by The Study Report has recommended some 21 strategies addressing a wide range of management attributes pertaining to the sector.
This Strategy Plan Report is yet another important deliverable of the ASM as part of its mandate to provide strategic advice to the government. We are confident that the findings, recommendations and strategies contained herein would assist the government, and Kementerian Tenaga, Teknologi Hijau dan Air KeTTHA in particular, in the exercise of its functional responsibility for the provision of water supply and sewerage services nationwide.
The studies also undergo a process of strategic consultations with relevant institutional, community and private sector stakeholders, culminating in the preparation of a strategy plan or advisory report for consideration and adoption by the relevant authority or agency responsible for its implementation. Hence, WSWWM aims at integrating water supply and water demand, water and wastewater, to ensure enhanced water supply security while safe guarding the sustainability of the water resource.
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In leading up to the preparation of this strategic planning report, a position paper was first commissioned in June to assess the current status and needs pertaining to water supply and wastewater services in Malaysia. The outcome of this assessment study is the. Upon completion of the position paper referred to above, the ASM Task Force proceeded to develop the strategies to chart the way forward for the improvement of water supply and wastewater management services in Malaysia.
Drawing from the findings and recommendations contained in the above mentioned reports and the valuable feedback gathered from the stakeholder consultations, the Task Force completed this Study Report entitled Strategies for the Improvement of Water Supply and Wastewater Management Services in Malaysia in June We take this opportunity to commend them all for their invaluable contribution. Above all, we would like to place on record our deep appreciation for the strong support and cooperation of the many water-related institutional and community stakeholders from the public, private and NGO sectors that participated and provided valuable feedback at the many strategic consultations that were held.
Growing population including a fairly large migrant population and urbanisation in Malaysia coupled with the fast pace of economic development has led to increased water use in all sub-sectors with resultant pollution of this finite and renewable yet vulnerable resource. Other waterrelated issues reported are increased flooding, deteriorating water quality of water sources rivers, lakes and reservoirs, and groundwater , growing conflicts among sectors, and emerging climate change impacts.
Trans-boundary issues involving the food and energy sectors have also been addressed. A summary list of the 21 recommended strategies is provided in Appendix 1.
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With the launch of the National Water Resources Policy NWRP , and as a matter of priority and for good governance, it is recommended that a National Water Services Policy be formulated which is consistent with the NWRP, ensures water supply security with the integration of water supply and sewerage services and fosters a cultural shift from hitherto water supply management dominance towards greater water demand management.
Consequential amendments to respective legislation and review of institutional structures would also be necessary. These efforts must be accompanied by strong water demand management measures foremost of which is to ensure that the right pricing of water is an integral part of the water services reform initiatives and as a deterrent to wastage of water.
The Study noted further that the National Water Services Commission has embarked on establishing a tariff setting mechanism, for Peninsular Malaysia and F. Labuan that is robust, fair and transparent. Needless to say, the successful implementation of such financial. Technological instruments to ensure the mandatory use of water saving devices and appliances and consumer awareness campaigns and education programme are all part of the wide array of measures recommended for implementation on a sustained basis.
A strong and sustained capacity building programme is recommended together with the establishment of regional training centres. The appropriation of adequate financial resources is. A continuing integrated water research programme is also vital to ensure sound and effective solutions, based on the best of science, engineering, technology and innovation, are readily available for the development and management of world class infrastructural systems. The above mentioned recommendations together with the other strategies listed in Appendix 1 would form a sound basis for improvement of water supply and wastewater services in the country with the ultimate goal of ensuring that good clean tap water is available and the state of the environment is safeguarded through the use of green technology befitting a nation aiming for a developed country status by Strategy 3 - Review institutional structures at all hierarchical levels following the integration of the water supply and sewerage sectors.
Strategy 5 - Implement Management Information System to cover both water supply and sewerage services at the national level. Strategy 6 - Develop alternative sources of water supply for use singly or conjunctively with surface water. Strategy 7 - Seeking exemption of aluminium sludge as a scheduled waste. Strategy 8 - Centralised versus decentralised wastewater treatment system.
Strategy 9 - Review scope and coverage of sewerage services to ensure proper management of sewarage treatment plant effluent. Strategy 12 - Application of innovative technologies for water supply and wastewater sectors Strategy 13 - Water tariff adjustment and appropriate tariff structure to reduce wasteful consumption. Strategy 14 - Engaging the consumers and the public in water conservation initiatives and the role of water forum.
Strategy 17 - Implement adaptation and mitigation strategies in response to the impacts of climate change. Strategy 18 - Pursue continuing integrated research on water supply and sewerage systems, products and services. Strategy 20 - Develop together with the food and energy sectors a common Water-Food-Energy Nexus framework.
Implementation of it involves the integration of both natural and human systems set within an overall framework that provides the enabling environment with effective institutional arrangements and supported by necessary management instruments. Each of these sub-sets or sub-themes is then subjected to in-depth studies culminating in the preparation of a strategy plan or advisory report for consideration and adoption by the relevant authority or agency responsible for its implementation. The studies also undergo a process of strategic consultations with relevant institutional, community and private sector stakeholders.
This study was initiated by ASM to review the current status and adopting a holistic approach to identify the shortcomings and develop strategies to improve the services provided. Principle No. Malaysian Water Scenario - Brief Overview of Issues and Challenges Growing population including the fairly large migrant population and urbanisation in Malaysia coupled with the fast pace of economic development has led to increased water use in all sub-sectors with resultant pollution of this finite and renewable yet vulnerable resource.
Fragmented management, a legacy from the past, still prevails leading to competition and conflicts in water use in some river basins. Consumptive demand was assessed to be With the total effective rainfall estimated at around 74 BCM sets the available resource some four times above the projected need! Back in , water was rationed for nearly days for 3. More recently, a similar prolonged drought which began in February affected many regions in the country with the Klang valley experiencing the worst, also resulting in water rationing. Temporal and spatial variability of the rainfall, coupled with high population densities.
The situation was further exacerbated by river pollution associated with both point and non-point source pollution that was already affecting the ecology and the functional capacity of the aquatic ecosystems. The NWRS also highlighted other waterrelated issues, namely increased flooding, deteriorating water quality of water sources rivers, lakes and reservoirs, and groundwater , emerging climate change impacts, fragmented management and growing conflicts among sectors. For a country that is envisioned to be a developed nation by year , the support of a vibrant water sector with a host of expectations of which a strong and sustained water supply and wastewater development and management programme are vital components.
This Study, commissioned in June was completed in July The objectives of the Study were six-fold, namely: i A compilation of on-going policies and strategies decided by the Government related to the water and wastewater industry; ii Undertake evaluation of the achievement of the policies and strategies, review and making necessary recommendations for improvement; iii Undertake study on the water safety and security countrywide with reference to the previous studies particularly the National Water Resources Study; iv Recommendations of practical solutions for sustainability of industry on issues related to operations of water and wastewater facilities; v To ensure comprehensiveness, all data and information compiled under items i , to iv above was obtained through desk studies, from responses to suitably framed questionnaires, and through interviews with responsible personnel of relevant public and private stakeholder agencies and organisations.
Prior to. A copy of the Study Report appears as Volume 2. The main findings of the Study are summarised hereunder and comprise two parts: 3. Act empowers a Commission to regulate both the water supply and wastewater industries in Peninsular Malaysia, and the Federal Territories of Putrajaya and Labuan.
Act , on the other hand, was promulgated for the purpose of ensuring uniformity of law and policy for the proper control and regulation of water supply services throughout Peninsular Malaysia and the Federal Territories of Putrajaya and Labuan whereas for sewerage services and systems, it covers the whole of Malaysia. There has not been a clear policy pertaining to sewerage services to guide the industry although Section 15 a of The National Water Services Commission.
Act mentioned a national policy objective for the sewerage industry. A National Sewerage Policy draft was prepared in but is yet to be approved by the relevant authorities for implementation. The Jabatan Bekalan Air JBA had drafted a water supply policy for the water supply sector in but this draft has also yet to be approved for implementation by the authorities.
In the wastewater sector, the current tariff rate is also low for an efficient and sustainable sewerage services industry. Operating at an annual loss of more than RM75 million proved that the tariff mechanism is not possible for the operators to recover full costs. The current practice of tariff review is seen to be as not inadequately facilitated. The negative impacts of low tariff on water industry are as follows: i The low tariff had resulted in deficit in the revenue to cover the expenditure Figure 1. This is not sustainable and has resulted in poor services and system inefficiencies;.
The trend of losses was evident from , possibly due to the cost incurred in paying for water production concessions in a number of states. Hence, the effort for restructuring and regulating water industry in a holistic manner is inevitable; Some states had their last tariffs reviewed in the s. In the past, this was attributed to the lack of political determination at state level to raise the tariffs.
The political unwillingness was expected for fear of losing political support in future elections. This is unhealthy and tariff setting should be based on economic and performance considerations and free from political agenda; Repairing pipe leaks is more costly than the losses incurred by letting water to leak; and Initiatives to use alternative sources, such as rainwater harvesting or efforts to recycle, reuse and reduce water, are not economically feasible since the savings anticipated from these initiatives do not justify implementing these initiatives.
However, there had apparently been not much interaction between Forum Air and the industry. This is particularly important since Forum Air does not only. The present act is limited to interaction with consumers. It is crucial to ensure that the water supply and sewerage services companies are aware of, and responsive to concerns about their services. However, WSPs has not been implemented yet by the water operators.
At the national level, an action plan is being implemented to initiate the development of WSP. Each water operator has been assigned to develop a pilot project. Factors that could affect water quality are addressed in the Water Services Industry Act Act , among them being the following sections: Section 34 — Security, integrity and safety of water.
It is further noted that the Act had a clause relating to the development of WSP, viz. The Commission may make such rules for all or any of the following matters: k All matters relating to the safety and security of water supply and sewerage systems; l All matters relating to the formulation and implementation of water and sewerage safety plan. WSP for sewerage systems has yet to be explored. The current constraints facing the water supply and sewerage industry on WSP are as follows: i No incentive for water operator to provide good quality potable water; ii Low priority by regulator to enforce the development of WSP; iii Lack of facilitators to assist operators in WSP development; iv Insufficient funding to develop WSP; v Legislative and jurisdictional uncertainties on catchment pollution especially on non-point.
As most of the plants use alum, polyaluminium chloride or other aluminium-based coagulants, aluminium concentrations are expected to be high. However, it is interesting to note that there is no aluminium threshold limits specified in the total threshold limit concentration as specified in the Department of Environment, Malaysia Guidelines for the application of special management of scheduled waste.
A study by Malaysian Water Association MWA recommended that the sludge should not be considered as a scheduled waste but as ordinary wastes which are subjected to other existing regulations, such as effluent standards for direct discharge or threshold limits for landfill and land applications. There was also a suggestion made earlier to DOE that the sludge from aluminium be given similar treatment as —spent activated carbon excluding carbon from potable water and processes of the food and vitamin production SW The classification of aluminium waste as a SW requires the treated sludge to be transported to designated landfills which would raise the cost to the operators to bear.
It was estimated that the cost of disposal of aluminium sludge at municipal landfills and Kualiti Alam is RM0. Hence, the annual cost for the whole country may exceed RM10 billion a year if all the sludge is to be stored in drums and sent to Kualiti Alam, double the annual revenue which is currently about RM5 billion. The issue needs to be addressed in a holistic manner taking cognition of the difficulties of collecting revenue for sewerage if it continues to be operated as a separate entity.
Water companies are not keen to share their profit and taking sewerage as part of their responsibilities without seeing the profitability of sewerage services. Hence, integration efforts should look at the tariffs in the sewerage services as well as on considering a combined billing for water supply and wastewater services. This was done before but did not succeed. If integration of the billing is difficult to be carried out, it is envisaged that integration of the two services will even be more difficult. Water used by large consumers is not lucrative to be recycled as the price of water is cheap.
Similarly, in the wastewater sector, as quality of sewerage treatment plant STP effluent increases, there is a need to look at how the effluent can be reused for purposes other than for potable use.
Water Treatment: Principles and Practices of Water Supply Operations
The possible reuse and recycle of treated effluents may be considered for non-potable purposes and industrial usage could be relieved from current water demand burden. With the limited source of fresh, clean water anticipated in future, recycling and reusing effluents is one option. This will also contribute significantly to reinforce the green initiative of the government. Sullage is not currently part of domestic wastes and is allowed to flow into the drains which pollutes rivers, the main source of raw water for drinking purposes.
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