The Transport Managers & Operators Handbook 2008


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The requirement for an operator to prepare and operate to an exposition. Rules affected This project is associated with Part This package is currently under development and is planned to be available later in This will be updated as approved drafts become available. Comments close 28 November Comments close 23 November Comment period closes 5 September Allan completed his Doctorate examining the role for rail freight within the supply chain in Since then, his main research focus has been on rail freight policy, planning and operations, focusing specifically on efficiency and sustainability issues.

Although its core activities have been fundamental to economic devel- opment and social well-being for millennia, it is only over the past 50 years that logistics has come to be regarded as a key determinant of business performance, a profession and a major field of academic study. During this period the dominant paradigm for those managing and studying logistics has been commercial.

The prime, and in many cases sole, objective has been to organize logistics in a way that maximizes profitability. The calculation of profitability, however, has included only the economic costs that companies directly incur. The wider envi- ronmental and social costs, traditionally excluded from the balance sheet, have been largely ignored — until recently. Over the past 10—15 years, against a background of increasing public and government concern for the environment, companies have come under mounting pressure to reduce the environmental impact of their logistics operations.

The distribution of goods impairs local air quality, generates noise and vibration, causes accidents and makes a significant contribution to global warming. The impact of logistics on climate change has attracted increasing attention in recent years, partly because tightening controls on pollution and road safety improvements have alleviated the other environmental problems, but also because new scientific research has revealed that global warming presents a much greater and more immediate threat than previously thought.

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It is estimated that freight transport accounts for roughly 8 per cent of energy-related CO2 emissions worldwide Kahn Ribeiro and Kobayashi, The inclusion of warehousing and goods handling is likely to add around 2—3 per cent to this total. In the road transport sector, the amount of energy used to move freight is increasing at a faster rate than the energy consumed by cars and buses, and, in the European Union, may overtake it by the early s European Commission, If CO2 emissions from shipping grow at their forecast rate while governments cut emissions from their national economies by an average of 50 per cent by the middle of the century in line with current targets, shipping alone could account for 15—30 per cent of total CO2 emissions by , even allowing for a 33—50 per cent improvement in its energy efficiency by then Committee on Climate Change, It is hardly surprising, therefore, that governments and inter-governmental organizations are developing carbon abatement policies for the freight transport sector.

Despite recent improvements, the potential still exists to cut the other environmental costs of logistics by a signif- icant margin. Furthermore, sustainability does not only have an environ- mental dimension. Sustainable development was originally portrayed as the reconciliation of environmental, economic and social objectives Brundtland Commission, The concept also underpins government strategies on sustainable distribution, such as that of the UK government DETR, a. While the main focus of this book is on ways of reducing the environmental effects of logistics, frequent reference is also made to their economic and social implications.

The issues discussed in this book are topical, important and currently engaging the attention of company managers and policy makers in many countries around the world. The book aims to provide a broad overview of technical, managerial, economic and policy aspects of green logistics, and as a result to improve understanding of the various problems that have to be overcome in assessing and addressing the environmental consequences of logistical activities.

It contains case studies and examples of the types of initiatives that can be taken at different levels, ranging from those within a single company to those that span an entire supply chain and possibly involve businesses in several countries. The book also explores the range of approaches and analytical tools available to academics and practitioners working in the field of green logistics.

Green logistics is a relatively young but rapidly evolving subject. This is a good time to take stock, reflect on the work that has been done to date and assess the challenges ahead. The remainder of this chapter lays a foundation for the book by reviewing the development of the subject over the past 50 years. It also presents an analytical framework for the study of green logistics and concludes with a brief outline of the other 16 chapters.

A brief history of green logistics research It is difficult to decide when research on green logistics began. One possible starting point would be the publication of the first paper on an environmental theme in a mainstream logistics journal. This, however, would ignore a large body of earlier research on the environmental effects of freight transport undertaken before logistics gained recognition as a field of academic study. While concern was expressed about the damaging effects of freight transport in the s, most of the substantive research on the subject dates from the mids.

In their review of 10 logistics, supply management and transport journals over the period —, Aronsson and Brodin found that only 45 papers out of 2, 2. When the publication horizons are extended by time and type of output, however, one uncovers a large, well-established and vibrant field of research. Figure 1. This extends the three-fold classification of green logistics research adopted by Abukhader and Jonsson , which comprises environ- mental assessment, reverse logistics and green supply chains. These are shown as wedges to reflect a broadening perspective: 1. Public-to-private: Much of the early research was driven by a public policy agenda as newly emergent environmental pressure groups began to lobby for government intervention to mitigate the damaging effects of freight movement and public agencies sought to improve their understanding of the problem and find means of addressing it.

Through time, this public sector interest in the subject has been complemented by a growth in private sector involvement in green logistics research as businesses have begun to formulate environ- mental strategies both at a corporate level and more specifically for logistics. Operational-to-strategic: A second general trend has been a broad- ening of the corporate commitment to green logistics, from the adoption of a few minor operational changes to the embedding of environmental principles in strategic planning.

Local-to-global: In the s and 70s the main focus was on the local environmental impact of air pollution, noise, vibration, accidents and visual intrusion. No reference was made to the global atmospheric effects of logistical activity. Indeed in the s some climate models predicted that the planet was entering a new ice age! The transconti- nental spread of acid rain from sulphur emissions and depletion of the ozone layer caused mainly by chlorofluorocarbons during the s demonstrated that logistics and other activities could have a more geographically extensive impact on the environment.

With climate change now the dominant environmental issue of the age, the impact of logistics on global atmospheric conditions has become a major focus of research. The context within which research on green logistics has been undertaken has also been evolving in other ways. This has extended the scope of green logistics research in terms of the functions, processes and relationships investigated McKinnon, Other major contextual trends include the growth of environmental awareness, the proliferation of environmental regulations, and the development of national and international standards for environmental reporting and management that many companies now adopt as part of their corporate social responsibility CSR programmes.

Partly as a result of these trends, the volume of statistics available to green logistics researchers has greatly expanded and companies have become more willing to support studies in this field. In reviewing the development of green logistics as a field of study, one detects international differences in research priorities. In the UK, for example, much of the early research on green logistics was a response to a public dislike of heavy lorries. In Germany, research on reverse logistics was stimulated by the introduction of radical packaging-waste legislation in the early s.

Until recently, reverse logistics attracted much more attention from US researchers than other aspects of green logistics, with much of the corporate interest in the subject related to its impact on costs and prof- itability rather than on the environment.

Reducing freight transport externalities Much of the early research on the environmental impact of logistics was motivated by the growth of lorry traffic at a time when lorries were much noisier and more polluting than today. Numerous studies were conducted in the s to assess the nature and scale of these effects, many of them in the UK.

Their focus was on the local environmental impact of lorries. Campaigners were particularly alarmed by official forecasts that freight traffic volumes would continue to grow steeply for the foreseeable future. In the UK, the government responded by setting up an inquiry to examine the effects of lorries on the environment and explore ways of minimizing them Pettit, The Report of this Inquiry Armitage, provided a useful review of lorry-related exter- nalities, the causes of road freight growth and the options for mitigating its environmental effects.

It was preoccupied, however, with local planning and regulatory issues, and antagonised environmental groups at the time by recommending an increase in the maximum gross lorry weight from 32 to 44 tonnes. At an international level, the OECD also published a report on the effects of heavy trucks on the environment and explored ways in which they might be reduced.

Advances in vehicle technology and tightening regulations on emission levels gradually reduced transport externalities per vehicle-km. It was recognized, however, that much of the environmental improvement being achieved at the individual vehicle level was being eroded by the underlying growth in road freight traffic Adams, ; Whitelegg, Reducing the environmental burden imposed by freight transport would, therefore, entail much more than improved fuel efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. More radical measures to contain the growth of road freight traffic would be required. This might be difficult to achieve, however, without jeopardizing future economic growth.

Individual sectors of the economy, however, were experiencing rates of freight traffic growth well above the average and faster than the rate at which output was growing. By mapping the supply chains of all the ingredients and compo- nents contained in this product she was able to demonstrate that for every pot of yoghurt sold in a German supermarket, a truck had to travel nine metres.

She went on to assess the environmental impact of all the related freight transport, using this case study to illustrate how the logistical requirements of even a fairly cheap basic product could be responsible for significant amounts of pollution and noise. These and other studies highlighted the need for more research on the process of road freight traffic growth and the extent to which it could be influenced by public policy interventions.

These studies examined, to varying degrees, three methods of decoupling economic growth from road freight traffic levels: reducing the transport intensity of the economy generally defined as the ratio of road tonne- kms to GDP , altering the freight modal split to displace freight on to alternative modes and improving vehicle utilization to reduce the ratio of vehicle-kms to tonne-kms. Table 1. Research by McKinnon and Woodburn , McKinnon and Cooper, Black and Peters identified a series of logistics and supply chain trends respon- sible for freight traffic growth.

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The nature of the relationship between these trends and freight traffic growth in different countries and sectors Table 1. Ironically, over the previous decade the link had been broken, with freight tonne-kms growing at a faster rate than the EU economy as a whole. The policy aim, however, was to decouple these variables in the opposite direction. If the underlying growth in freight movement were to slacken, it would be easier for governments to make logistics more environmentally sustainable DETR , a.

The main goal, however, should be to decouple economic growth from freight-related externalities rather than the growth in traffic volumes. This involves manipulating a series of key logistical parameters each of which is amenable to public policy initiatives. In this section we have charted the development of research into ways of reducing freight-related externalities at national and international levels. It is in towns and cities, however, where high freight traffic and high population densities coincide, that these externalities are at their greatest.

A separate strand of green logistics research has focused on the specific issues raised by the distribution of goods in urban areas. City logistics The first major studies of the distribution of freight in urban areas were conducted in the s and early s. Major cities such as London and Chicago commissioned, usually for the first time, surveys of freight move- ments, while academics began to research specific aspects of urban freight systems, often exploiting the new supply of urban freight data.

Numerous studies were then done to find ways of consolidating loads and, thereby, cut traffic levels, energy use, emissions and costs eg Rushton, The most popular idea was to set up transhipment or consolidation centres in and around urban areas where inbound loads could be disaggregated and outbound loads aggregated. The s and early s was a relatively fallow period for research on urban freight, partly because funding for large-scale urban goods transport studies dried up. While many of the aspirations of the early s did not come to fruition, there has been at least in some quarters a clearer recognition of the role of freight, and ways of accommodating it.

Partly for this reason, there was a major revival of interest in the subject during the s and s, supported by multinational research initiatives in Europe. Japanese researchers have also become particularly active in the study of logistics Taniguchi et al, Greater priority is now being given to environmental issues in urban freight research, despite the fact that, over the past 30 years, the tightening of pollution and noise limits on new vehicles has greatly reduced localized freight-related externalities while much freight-gener- ating activity has migrated from inner urban areas to suburban and out- of-town locations.

Other new strands in urban freight research in the last decade include the increase in the diversity and extent of service-related transport to commercial and residential locations, as well as the growing importance of home deliveries. The economic contribution of goods and service transport to major cities is also gaining wider recognition. This is beginning to result in a reconsideration of the priority given to urban freight transport in decisions concerning the allocation of road space and transport investment.

There has also been a resurgence of interest in the scope for urban consolidation centres in specific sectors, including retailing and construction, based on new business models Browne, Sweet et al, This incorporates the return of waste product and packaging for reuse, recycling and disposal, an activity that is now regarded as a key part of green logistics. Research interest in this topic developed in the early s when governments and businesses began to reform the management of waste, reducing the proportion of waste material being dumped in landfill sites or incinerated and increasing the proportion that was recycled and reused.

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This funda- mentally transformed the logistics of waste management and stimulated research interest in the return flow of product back along the supply chain. In a White Paper prepared for the Council of Logistics Management, Stock set out an agenda for future academic research on this topic. He used available statistical data from the United States to highlight the scale of the problem, assessed the current state of knowledge and identified a series of research issues requiring further investigation.

An early contribution by Jahre showed how the basic principles of logistics, such as those of postponement and speculation, could be applied to the return flow of waste from homes. In their state-of-the-art review some years later, however, Carter and Ellram lamented the lack of theory devel- opment and empirical research in this field.

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Over the past decade, there have been many more theoretical and analytical contribu- tions to the reverse logistics literature eg Jayaraman, Guide and Srivastava, ; Beamon, ; Dekker et al, , reflecting a greater emphasis on the optimization of return flows of waste and other products. As the volume of waste being recycled and reused has grown, new waste management systems have evolved and government regulations have tightened, expanding opportunities for research in this field.

It thereafter became more common for businesses to formulate environmental strategies based on wide-ranging assess- ments of their impact on the environment. For a company wanting to extract more value from the adoption of green practices it was necessary to make the environment a key element in the business model. It is against this background that companies have been developing environmental strategies for their logistics operations. Some companies claim to have had a specific environmental policy for logistics for many years; a survey by PE International in the UK, for example, found that 19 per cent of companies had such a policy.

Of the various activities covered by these strategies, logistics is one that the largest proportion of companies 81 per cent have modified for environmental reasons Insight, This does not necessarily mean, however, that applying commercial best practice in logistics automatically minimizes its environmental impact. As companies do not have to bear the full cost of this impact for reasons discussed in Chapter 4 , the cost and service trade-offs that logistics managers make generally underestimate environmental effects.


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The resulting decisions may optimize logistics operations in economic terms to the detriment of the environment. Numerous studies have illus- trated how practices such as the centralization of inventory Matthews and Henrickson, , just-in-time replenishment Rao, Grenoble and Young, ; Whitelegg, ; Bleijenberg, and wider sourcing of supplies Garnett, can carry a significant environmental penalty. It has frequently been argued that if companies factored all environmental costs into logistical trade-off analyses more sustainable systems would be created, characterized by more dispersed inventory, longer order lead times and more localized sourcing.

Other research, however, has challenged the conventional view that inventory centralization, JIT and globalization are inevitably bad for the environment. McKinnon and Woodburn and Kohn and Huge- Brodin , for instance, contend that the centralization of distribution systems can reduce the environmental impact of logistics by, inter alia, consolidating freight flows. Garreau, Lieb and Millen , Tracey et al and the Department of the Environment, Transport and the Regions b show how companies can implement JIT in ways that does not generate much additional freight traffic, while Smith et al and others assert that minimizing the distance goods travel from suppliers need not minimize their environmental footprint when measured on a life cycle basis.

Companies applying green principles to their internal operations natu- rally wish to ensure that their purchases of goods and services come from suppliers that also meet certain minimum environmental standards. At the very least, they want to minimize any environmental liability asso- ciated with purchased goods and services Sarkis, A US survey by Gavaghan et al examined the extent to which companies were using four sets of environmental criteria in assessing suppliers, under the headings of regulatory compliance, environmental management systems, eco-efficiency and green design.

The greening of purchasing activities has since become a fertile area of research consid- ering issues such as the environmental criteria for supplier selection and environmental accreditation eg Min and Galle, Walton, Handfield and Melnyk , Bowen et al and others adopted a broader supply management perspective on the subject, examining ways in which vendors could work with their suppliers to improve their joint environ- mental performance.

A key element in these collaborative initiatives is the physical movement of products between supply chain partners. Some authors have argued that research on GSCM has its origin in the reverse logistic studies undertaken in the s. Van Hoek , for example, saw the main locus of environmental research in logistics as being within the reverse channel for waste products, and advocated the extension of this research effort to environmental management of the whole chain from raw material source to after-sales service.

Physically distributing products is seen as only one component in a much more broadly defined GSCM system. It is worth recalling, however, that in the recent survey by Insight four-fifths of the companies that were greening their supply chains had instigated measures related to logistics, a much higher proportion than were modi- fying other elements in the chain. As the scope of GSCM has widened it has developed greater analytical depth.

Srivastava found that a diverse range of mathematical and statistical techniques have been applied to the analysis of GSCM. Although GSCM is a relatively new field of study it has already achieved a fair degree of methodological maturity. Green logistics: rhetoric and reality A large body of survey evidence has accumulated to show that companies around the world are keen to promote their green credentials through the management of logistics.

It is difficult to gauge, however, how far this reflects a true desire to help the environment as opposed to enhancing public relations. Recent surveys have enquired about the key drivers behind company initiatives to green their logistical systems and supply chains Table 1. Although the survey methodologies, sample sizes and composition and questionnaire formats have varied, the same general messages have emerged, suggesting a strong emphasis on corporate image, competitive differentiation, cost saving and compliance with government regulation.

In business terms, after all, the most fundamental of all green objectives should be to maintain a physical envi- ronment that can support a high level of economic activity in the longer term. On the other hand, it is very encouraging that companies responding to these surveys recognize that a healthy stream of conventional business benefits can flow from the greening of logistics Table 1.

This marks an important contrast with the situation in the early s, at least in the UK. A negative impression was given of businesses rather grudgingly trading off higher costs and lower profits for a better environment. While regulatory Table 1. Green logistics is now regarded as good business practice and something that can have a positive impact on many financial and operational metrics. A model for green logistics research A model has been devised to map the complex relationship between logistical activity and its related environmental effects and costs Figure 1.

These effects and costs mainly arise from freight transport opera- tions and, for this reason, most of the boxes and links in the diagram are associated with the movement of goods. Reference is also made, however, to externalities from warehousing, materials handling and logistics IT activities. The model can be applied equally to the outbound movement of goods forward logistics and the return flow of products back along the supply chain reverse logistics. In essence it decomposes Table 1. Following this split, subsequent parameters need to be calibrated for particular modes.

As road is typically the main mode of freight transport within countries, the rest of Figure 1. The handling factor serves as a crude measure of the average number of links in a supply chain. Average payload is normally measured solely in terms of weight, though as the average density of freight is declining, for reasons discussed in Chapter 9, and an increasing proportion of loads is volume- rather than weight- constrained, it would be helpful to measure the physical dimensions of freight consignments. Very little data is available, however, to permit a volumetric analysis of vehicle loading.

It is a function mainly of vehicle characteristics, driving behaviour and traffic conditions. For consistency, full well-to-wheel assessments should be made of the various pollutant emissions, wherever possible. Allowance must also be made for other environmental effects such as noise irritation, vibration and accidents. This can be expressed either with respect to vehicle-kms in the case of transport, or with reference to the throughput of warehouses, terminals etc.

Money then becomes the common metric against which the environmental effects can be compared. This valuation also makes it possible to assess the extent to which environmental costs are recovered by the taxes imposed on logistical activity. Businesses devising green logistics strategies and government ministries developing sustainable logistics policies need to exploit this full range of parameters rather than rely on a few narrowly defined initiatives.

These establish the pattern of trading links between a company and its suppliers, distributors and customers.

Within the context defined by decisions at the previous three levels, logistics managers still have discretion over the choice, routing and loading of vehicles and operating practices within warehouses. There has been a tendency for firms to confine green initiatives to the bottom end of this decision-making hierarchy where they usually yield economic as well as environment benefits. These functional-level initia- tives typically focus on truck fuel efficiency, backloading, vehicle routing and energy conservation in warehouses.

Although they are very welcome, much of their environmental benefit can be offset by the effects of higher- level strategic and commercial decisions, relating for example to inventory centralization or wider sourcing, which make logistics systems more transport-intensive and hence environmentally intrusive.

The challenge is now for companies to instil green principles into the strategic planning of logistics and coordinate environmental management at all four levels of decision making. Outline of the book The green logistics framework in Figure 1. Each of the nine key parameters is addressed by at least one chapter. The chapters have been grouped into four sections. The remaining chapters in Section 1 assess the environmental effects of logistics, consider how they can be evaluated in monetary terms and ask to what extent these environmental costs are covered by taxation.

In the first of these chapters, Cullinane and Edwards look at various ways in which freight transport adversely affects the environment over different geographical scales. They also consider the imposition of environmental standards on freight transport and show how environmental impacts can be measured at both macro- and micro-levels. This measurement theme continues into the next chapter, where Piecyk explains how carbon emis- sions from logistical activity can be audited at company, supply chain and individual product levels.

Standard procedures are outlined and a case study used to show how a company can assess the carbon footprint of its road freight transport operation.

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The final chapter in this section by Piecyk, McKinnon and Allen deals with the monetary valuation of the environmental, infrastructural and congestion effects of freight transport and assesses the degree to which the taxes paid by lorries and vans in the UK internalize these external costs. Section 2 takes a strategic perspective on green logistics. It begins with a chapter on the opportunities for making the structure of logistics systems and supply chains more environmentally sustainable.

This chapter by Harris, Sanchez Rodrigues, Naim and Mumford reviews the current state of knowledge about supply chain structure and dynamics, highlights the need to include environmental metrics into supply chain analysis and shows how the design of logistics systems influences their environmental impact. Another major determinant of this impact is the choice of freight transport mode. In their chapter, Woodburn and Whiteing consider the environmental benefits of shifting freight from road to rail and water-borne transport and then review, with the help of case studies, what governments, freight operators and shippers can do to promote the use of these greener modes.

They focus on opportunities for technical improve- ments that would allow freight to be carried in larger quantities, more energy efficiently and with less pollution per tonne-km. The concluding chapter in this section by Marchant assesses the environmental impact of warehousing and examines the broad range of design, construction and operational measures that can be applied to minimize this impact and possibly even create, in the longer term, carbon neutral warehousing.

It starts with a chapter by McKinnon and Edwards on ways of improving vehicle utilization to achieve both environmental and economic savings. They consider the various ways of measuring vehicle-fill and the logis- tical trade-offs that companies must make in trying to raise vehicle load factors and cut empty running.

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Better loading should be accom- panied by more efficient routeing and scheduling. This is the subject of the contribution by Eglese and Black, which begins by defining the vehicle routing and scheduling problem VRSP and then explores some of the problems that arise when trying to solve this problem in the real world, such as dealing with specified time windows, backhauling, mixed vehicle fleets and traffic congestion.

Chapter 11, by McKinnon, explores the opportunities for improving fuel efficiency in the road freight sector. He argues that companies need to deploy a broad range of technical, behavioural and operational measures within properly coordinated fuel management programmes. The concluding chapter in this section, by Cherrett, Maynard, McLeod and Hickford, addresses a series of opera- tional issues in the expanding field of reverse logistics. It examines the various options for recycling, refurbishing and reusing waste products, assesses the impact of waste regulations and considers how the return flow of waste can be made more environmentally sustainable.

In Section 4 authors discuss four key issues that have generated a good deal of discussion in the field of green logistics in recent years. In recognition of the fact that much of the environmental impact of logistics is concentrated in urban areas, the chapter by Allen and Browne reviews a range of initiatives, such as the establishment of consolidation centres and creation of environmental zones, that can improve the sustainability of freight deliveries in towns and cities. Cullinane and Edwards weigh up the costs and benefits of freight operators switching from conven- tional fossil fuels to alternative energy forms such as biofuels, hydrogen, natural gas and battery power.

Much of their chapter focuses on the sustainability of biofuels, an issue that is proving particularly conten- tious. The penultimate chapter, by Edwards, Wang, Potter and Cullinane, considers how the development of e-commerce, at both the business-to- business B2B and business-to-consumer B2C levels, is influencing the environmental footprint of logistics operations. In Section 5, the final chapter provides a public policy perspective on green logistics.

As the free market on its own is unlikely to deliver the necessary level of environmental improvement, particularly in terms of climate change, governments will play a critical role in the future devel- opment of green logistics. Sharon Cullinane and Michael Browne also contributed to this chapter. In the later sections average handling factor and length of haul are discussed before modal split as they are related to freight movement by all modes.

This chapter examines these various externalities and discusses how their impact can be assessed. As climate change is now considered to be the most serious environmental challenge facing mankind, the main focus will be on greenhouse gas GHG emissions from freight transport. In measuring the environmental effects of logistics it is important to distinguish first-order and second-order impacts.

The first-order envi- ronmental impacts are those directly associated with freight transport, warehousing and materials handling operations. Second-order impacts result indirectly from these logistics operations and take various forms. For instance, advances in logistics have facilitated the process of globali- zation so that goods are now sourced from previously little-developed parts of the world. Partly to accommodate the consequent growth in freight traffic in such areas, governments have expanded transport infra- structure and this has often encroached on sensitive environments.

The increase in air freight and other traffic resulting from global sourcing is a first-order effect, whereas the increase in infrastructure, such as road building in sensitive areas, is a second-order effect. Since the majority of the first-order impacts emanate from the transport of goods, rather than their storage and handling, the attention will focus on this activity.

Chapter 8 specifi- cally examines the environmental impact of warehousing. Environmental impacts Atmospheric emissions Emissions from freight transport largely depend on the type of fuel used. As discussed in Chapter 15, various alternative fuels now exist.

However, the main fuel used by goods vehicles continues to be diesel, with rela- tively small amounts of freight moved in petrol-engined vans. Trucks and vans emit pollution mainly because the combustion process in their engines is incomplete. Diesel and petrol contain both hydrogen and carbon. If it were possible to achieve perfect combustion, per cent of the hydrogen would be converted into water and all the carbon into CO2. However, because combustion is not complete, tailpipe emissions of pollutants such as hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides result Holmen and Niemeier, In most countries, relatively small amounts of freight are moved in elec- trically powered road vehicles or freight trains.

In the case of these opera- tions, the pollution arises at the point where the electricity is generated and the nature of that pollution depends on the primary energy source used. In countries such as France and Switzerland where only a small proportion of electricity is produced using fossil fuels, the carbon intensity of electrified rail freight services is very low IRU, Diesel and petrol have slightly different environmental impacts as their mix of pollutant emissions varies. Diesel engines emit more CO2 per unit of energy, but because they are more energy efficient, the overall impact of diesel engines on CO2 emissions is less than that of an equivalent- sized petrol engine Schipper and Fulton, The standard fuel CO2 conversion factors for various types of fuel are given in Table 2.

Diesel engines emit much higher levels of particulate matter and nitrogen oxides than an equivalent petrol-powered engine Holmen and Niemeier, It is difficult to measure emissions of particulates precisely, because of their ultra-fine nature. PM10 particles, for instance, have a radius of 10 microns or less a micron is a hundredth of a millimetre.

Measuring these particles when the vehicle is stationary is difficult enough; measuring them under different driving conditions and speeds introduces addi- tional complexities. The pollutants emitted by transport can be divided into local, regional and global effects see Table 2. Local pollutants remain close to the source of the emission. The course lasts one full day and designed to be a progressive developmental learning opportunity for….

This is only for those delegates wishing to undertake just the case study exam which runs between hrs. This one day course aims to provide learners with the knowledge and understanding of health and safety issues in the workplace. It therefore supports the development of health and safety competence, and promotes a health and safety culture. It is relevant to and intended for a wide range of roles…. By the…. It is a 4 day course comprising…. The sessions are run in Manchester so delegates can…. This course has been designed to refresh a CPC holders knowledge on pertinent areas that are considered very important for re-evaluation within a Transport Operation.

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