If you were sexually assaulted, it was not your fault. You can find help at 1in6 , an organization RAINN partners with that is dedicated to helping men who have survived unwanted or abusive sexual experiences. If you were sexually abused when you were a child or a teenager, you may have different feelings and reactions at different times in your life. The 1in6 website has answers to many of the questions or concerns you might have as an adult survivor of child or teen sexual abuse.
Coming forward about surviving sexual assault or sexual abuse can be difficult. It requires a lot of trust and understanding both for you and the person you choose to tell. You can find answers to some of the questions you might have about telling a partner at 1in6. Being able to share your story with other male survivors may be important in feeling less alone and connecting with others in your healing process.
Sexual Harassment and Assault at Work: Understanding the Costs
Read survivor stories of men who have experienced sexual assault or abuse as children, teens, and adults. When a perpetrator intentionally harms a minor physically, psychologically, sexually, or by acts of neglect, the crime is known as child abuse. Skip to main content. Sexual Assault of Men and Boys.
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Common reactions Men and boys who have been sexually assaulted may experience the same effects of sexual assault as other survivors, and they may face other challenges that are more unique to their experience. It is not a complete list, but it may help you to know that other people are having similar experiences: Anxiety, depression , post-traumatic stress disorder , flashbacks , and eating disorders Avoiding people or places that remind you of the assault or abuse Concerns or questions about sexual orientation Fear of the worst happening and having a sense of a shortened future Feeling like "less of a man" or that you no longer have control over your own body Feeling on-edge, being unable to relax, and having difficulty sleeping Sense of blame or shame over not being able to stop the assault or abuse, especially if you experienced an erection or ejaculation Withdrawal from relationships or friendships and an increased sense of isolation Worrying about disclosing for fear of judgment or disbelief Who are the perpetrators of sexual assault against men and boys?
Can being assaulted affect sexual orientation? How to support male survivors It can be hard to tell someone that you have experienced sexual assault or abuse. Many people in crisis feel as though no one understands them and that they are not taken seriously. Show them they matter by giving your undivided attention. It is hard for many survivors to disclose assault or abuse, especially if they fear not being believed because of stereotypes about masculinity. Validate their feelings.
Even if you are curious about what happened and feel that you want to fully understand it, avoid asking for details of how the assault occurred. However, if a survivor chooses to share those details with you, try your best to listen in a supportive and non-judgmental way. Provide appropriate resources. For example, trans men may face barriers when navigating medical care or black men may have concerns about reaching out to law enforcement. Be sensitive to these worries, and when supporting a survivor try your best to suggest resources you feel will be most helpful.
What if I experienced sexual assault as an adult? What if the abuse happened when I was a minor? How could this affect my relationships? Finding support If something happened to you, know that you are not alone. Visit the helpline. Visit online. Call the National Sexual Assault Hotline. Call HOPE to be connected to a trained staff member from a local sexual assault service provider in your area. Consider therapy or other mental health support. Some therapists specialize in issues you may be facing as a result of the abuse or assault. These enlightenment programmes paid off for the intended goals in the affected community in the past, and optimism in this important tool for public change cannot be misplaced if applied persistently in sexual assault prevention.
The Universal Basic Education UBE recently introduced by the Federal Government of Nigeria through an enabling federal law was meant to make education compulsory and free for all children up to the junior secondary school level. Child and women trafficking with the attendant risk of sexual assault and exploitation would be greatly curtailed if equal opportunity and free formal education is provided for all children.
The UBE as introduced in Nigeria with the enabling law, has the potential to take children off the street and at least obviate the poverty reason, usually responsible for non-enrolment in school and may also mitigate other religious and cultural reasons adduced for not sending, especially, the girl-child to school.
PREVENTION OF SEXUAL ASSAULT IN NIGERIA
The law has mandated that all Nigerian children must be enrolled in schools and failure to do so, parents or guardians would be prosecuted. Sexual assault prevention requires a solid foundation and one of the pillars would be addressing the gross inequality against the girl child in the educational system. Prevention of sexual assault will remain a mirage until society puts in place institutional framework to deal comprehensively with actual cases of sexual assault.
This approach involves functional, skilled, and synchronized services and also includes the criminal justice system, the police, social services, and sexual assault services. This modality stems from the summary of findings of progress and challenges in creating safe and healthy environment for Victorian women in a study of community attitudes to violence against women.
Adapting these provisions specifically for sexual assault and emphasizing on primary prevention i. These strategies seek to prevent sexual assault before it occurs by changing environments so that they are safer for women a simple measure like well lit walk ways could make a lot of difference, even though there are more factors to sexual assault than just dark places , building the skills and knowledge of individuals or changing behaviour.
Primary prevention addresses its underlying causes such as gender inequality and poverty , and are effective prevention strategies.
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Early intervention is targeted to individuals and groups who exhibit early signs of violent behaviour or being subject to violence. These strategies aim to change behaviours or increase the skills of individuals and groups. These strategies are implemented after violence has occurred and aim to deal with the violence, prevent its consequences and ensure that violence does not occur again or escalate.
A comprehensive protocol thus could be developed for the overall management of sexual assault and this would outline primary, secondary and tertiary levels of prevention that commences from a universal personal education and assistance for new parents to help ensure a positive relationship with the child and with access to continuing assistance where needed into the preschool years; and a formal link to the education service on entering school to a tertiary level of prevention predicated on a community-based, court ordered specific treatment programmes with specialists trained in this field to assist offenders to take responsibility for and control their behaviour.
Data from the US that evaluated the effect of this kind of comprehensive approach suggests a true decline in the incidence of child sexual abuse over the last decade, and is evidence that, in part at least, child sexual abuse may be preventable. As parents help to prevent sexual abuse of minors through open discussions of normal sexual development with their children, the paediatrician or other specialist children workers are in an ideal position to both aid parents in these discussions and to incorporate sexual development and abuse prevention into routine anticipatory guidance.
Some workers have also focused on perpetrator prevention, i. This entails incorporation of perpetrator prevention into an ecological approach to the prevention of sexual assault and involves the exploration of three of the risk factors linked with sexually abusive behaviour: gender inequality, the negative effects on children and young men of media exposure to sexual violence, and the increased risk of sexually abusive behaviour by males with a history of childhood sexual abuse.
This is a rather bold attempt to correct the traditional role ideology especially in the more prevalent sexual assault against women, where a societal expectation about sexual assault exists that men will be aggressive and women will be passive. However it is equally important to avoid any negative effects of self blame in the unfortunate event of a sexual assault despite possessing self defence skills. To this end therefore such defence courses should also emphasize that responsibility for assault always lies with the offenders and that women or victims are not responsible for Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine.
As already highlighted, it is a confrontational approach with inherent merits and demerits. Additional factors may include deficits in communication, an inability to seek help or report abuse, lack of knowledge on how to defend against abuse, and lack of education regarding appropriate sexual behaviour. Often they are dependent on others in scenarios where compliance is typically encouraged and reinforced such as in institutions which unfortunately might generalize to sexually abusive requests.
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Every responsible society must pay special attention to the very vulnerable. Studies have shown that behavioural skills training programme resulted in the acquisition of sexual abuse prevention skills in these individuals 31 , Eastgate, in her study on this subject, concluded that women and men with intellectual disabilities need education to assist them to resist sexual abuse.
In addition they may also need advocacy to ensure their environment e. Such training programmes could be replicated in various communities taking into consideration their peculiar demographic and sociocultural factors. I have no doubt that such specialized efforts will yield much dividend in the prevention of sexual assaults among the very vulnerable groups.
Young adolescents also constitute another vulnerable group deserving special attention. Sexual assault is preventable but it requires more than just a causal effort because of the complexity of its nature as alluded to in the foregoing discussion. It is important the developed societies maintain alertness and consolidate on preventive measures in place whilst the developing world could learn from the successes and failures of preventive measures that have been implemented in certain places.
A global collaboration is a critical requirement so as to create a hostile environment for sexual assault perpetrators in all climes. To this end, a purpose driven framework developed in Australia is worth considering in confronting the challenges of sexual assault prevention This framework is amenable to modification in order to fit into peculiar social, cultural, and religious contexts that exist in different places. The principles reflect the magnitude of the challenge in issues of sexual assault prevention, and also highlight the level of commitment and leadership required thus:.
Prevention begins with addressing the cultural values and norms that support and tolerate sexual assault. This is a long-term undertaking requiring sustained leadership and effort. Any ongoing development of an evidence based modality should be anchored in the context of each environment as this is fundamental to sexual assault prevention.
No single agency of government can address sexual assault prevention alone. Portfolios across all levels of government, including education, health, justice, and crime prevention, as well as the non-government sector and community stakeholders, each have a significant contribution to make. The generation and dissemination of research, practice and policy information to all stakeholders is central to sexual assault prevention.
Challenges that will be encountered in addressing the issue of sexual assault only reflect the complexity of the behaviours to be addressed in eliminating sexual violence. Although sexual violence is primarily instigated by males, it is the whole community that allows for the acceptance, maintenance, and reinforcement of such behaviour. This bulk of people in the middle, especially the male gender, may be well-meaning men who are looking for opportunities and direction about what steps they can take in preventing sexual assault.
It is therefore time for an all inclusive fight against sexual assault; a fight which should be devoid of sexist bias for greater efficacy; and a fight which indeed is attainable.
National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Ann Ib Postgrad Med. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Correspondence Dr. Uwom O. B , Ibadan, Nigeria E-mail: moc. Abstract Sexual assault occurs commonly worldwide and is particularly pervasive in the developing world. Keywords: Sexual Assault, Prevention, Nigeria. Public Enlightenment Public enlightenment has been shown to be a critical tool in changing behaviour, attitude, beliefs and value system of people.
Education The Universal Basic Education UBE recently introduced by the Federal Government of Nigeria through an enabling federal law was meant to make education compulsory and free for all children up to the junior secondary school level. Institutional Framework Prevention of sexual assault will remain a mirage until society puts in place institutional framework to deal comprehensively with actual cases of sexual assault.
Emphasis on Primary Prevention This modality stems from the summary of findings of progress and challenges in creating safe and healthy environment for Victorian women in a study of community attitudes to violence against women.
Primary Prevention These strategies seek to prevent sexual assault before it occurs by changing environments so that they are safer for women a simple measure like well lit walk ways could make a lot of difference, even though there are more factors to sexual assault than just dark places , building the skills and knowledge of individuals or changing behaviour. Early Intervention Early intervention is targeted to individuals and groups who exhibit early signs of violent behaviour or being subject to violence.
Intervention These strategies are implemented after violence has occurred and aim to deal with the violence, prevent its consequences and ensure that violence does not occur again or escalate. Confronting the Challenges Sexual assault is preventable but it requires more than just a causal effort because of the complexity of its nature as alluded to in the foregoing discussion.
The principles reflect the magnitude of the challenge in issues of sexual assault prevention, and also highlight the level of commitment and leadership required thus: Responsibility for the eradication of sexual assault rests with the whole community. Olle L. Medical Responses to Adults who have experienced Sexual Assault.
Sexual Assault. Sexual assault of men in the community. J Comm. Sexual abuse of boys. Definition, prevalence, correlate, sequelae, and management. Bell K. Female offenders of sexual assault. J Emerg Nurs. Nwosu IE. Africa Media Review. MacDonald H. Sexual Assault: A resource book for students. Melbourne: Vanderstadt Printers; Ojo M, Olufemi D.
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