Collected Experimental Papers: Volume I: Papers 1-11

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An International Journal of Molecular Glycoscience

Water absorption and the effects of acid attack on weight and strength deterioration factor SDF were also carried out. It was identified that the concrete with alccofine was more durable as compared to normal concrete. Therefore, it was concluded from this study that alccofine can be used as a viable substitute to cement in normal concrete considering its positive effects on property enhancement and eco-friendless.

Keywords: Alccofine, compressive strength, water absorption, acid attack. Abstract: Drowsiness is turning into a serious issue if there should be an occurrence of auto collision. Typically, Sleeping can be distinguished from a few elements like eye squint dimension, yawning, grasping power on haggle on. Be that as it may, all these estimating procedures will check just the physical exercises of the human. At times, individuals will rationally lay down with eyes open for a couple of moments. This will make huge mishaps in driving. Along these lines, in our proposed undertaking work we are breaking down the psychological exercises of cerebrum utilizing EEG signals dependent on Brain-Computer Interface BCI innovation.

The key work of the task is breaking down the cerebrum signals. Human mind comprises of a great many interconnected neurons. This neuron example will change as indicated by the human considerations. At each example arrangement remarkable electric mind flag will frame. On the off chance that an individual is rationally laying down with eyes open, the consideration level mind flag will get changed than the typical condition. This undertaking work utilizes a brain wave sensor which can gather EEG based cerebrum signs of various recurrence and plentifulness and it will change over these signs into bundles and transmit through Bluetooth medium in to the dimension splitter segment to check the consideration level.

Level splitter section LSS examines the dimension and gives the sleepy driving alarm and keeps the vehicle to be in self-controlled capacity until stir state. Notwithstanding this we likewise found a way to stay away from crashes dependent on this signal and LED shines. This can spare a great deal of lives in street transportation. Abstract: Goat meat is highly competitive with other livestock meat on nutritional and sensory qualities.

Three variants of curing pickle with variation of salt, sugar, papain and water are prepared and injected to goat meat product. Using of papain enzyme in formulation of curing pickle tenderize the goat meat and cut meat massaging time up to 3 h. The level of minerals and vitamins in goat meat before and after cooking is significantly different.

Keywords: goat meat, curing pickle, papain, vitamin, nutritional value. The various existing algorithms perform the analysis by reducing the scheduling points in a given task set. In this paper we develop a algorithm to compute the RMA schedulability in a distributed real-time system. We look at the limitations of parallel system and show how a distributed system can overcome it and also propose a distributed algorithm for the Schedulability analysis.

Keywords: distributed systems, real-time systems, RMA, Schedulability. Abstract: Natural resources are the part of human life. Water is also one of the natural resources. It is the main source of living things without presence of water there will be no living things on earth. Iot will be most prestigious technology in upcoming days. This paper presents an IoT device that monitors efficient usage of natural resources in agriculture. Now a days it so hard to farmer to give water, because.

So, in this system two types of sensors used in this project. These sensors will inform the water quality and pH level. According to those values by using Iot technology the motor functioning is automatically controlled. The given data will be stored in cloud. After getting values it will be send to the farmers phone by using GSM module. This process is done without any interaction of human. It can help the farmer without wastage of water and loss of time. Iot is very friendly to the environment and it can be used every sector.

Published Papers

This technology will be best for the farmers. Keywords: IOT, environment, pH level, agriculture, moisture. Abstract: Logo based document analysis plays an important role in many organizations for collecting information from massive number of administrative documents so that it can be summarized easily. Many researches are going on for improving the excellence of system, but the issues increase as the logos are similar to each other with minor differences.

Conventional methods would not suitable for such complex process of identifying exact match so optimized models plays a vital role in this process. Cuckoo search algorithm is used in many cluster-based applications and it provides better convergence results than other optimization models. This proposed research model uses hybrid cuckoo search algorithm using global search procedure for enhancing its performance in analysing the logo-based document retrieval from the data set and proves its effectiveness in terms of fitness function and classification accuracy.

Abstract: In this paper a comparative analysis among Proactive, Reactive and Hybrid routing protocol is presented using simulation. Keeping in view MANET is infrastructure less and at times nodes are free to move in different direction, making routing protocol a vital component for network operational effectiveness and efficiency. Abstract: The objective of the paper is, to propose one of the best approaches of quality assessment of undergraduate project.

Allelopathy Journal - Official Publication of International Allelopathy Foundation

The Examiners and Supervisor may use this approach for grading the level of students of a particular group Project. The recommended approaches are mathematical, which are evaluating the weight-age, performance, and contribution of individual member in their respective group. To sort out the existing issues, Result has been collected in the form of passive observation. The supervisor has to observe an individual one based on different observation techniques.

Abstract: Machine learning is the sub branch of artificial intelligence and it is making computers to learn from data without being explicitly programmed Heart disease prediction is used to determine the root cause of getting heart attack and the probability of getting a heart attack, group the people into different clusters based on getting heart attack or not There are five levels in heart attack from level 0 to level 4. Abstract: This article is devoted to an interesting educational direction i.

Radio Frequency RF concepts and the use of basic digital signal processing tools for the development of real-time applications. A system with digital audio broadcasting DAB based generalised frequency division multiplexing GFDM is considered, estimates of its transmission modes are utilized. In this paper GFDM system proposal for digital audio broadcasting is investigated.

The kernel is GFDM system, Emphasis is on the use of channel coding with low-density parity-check and convolutional codes at the transceiver. BER is calculated under rural area RA consideration for entire area with quality of audio signal received is mentioned with different colours along with goggle map.

Abstract: The growth of any country depends on the availability, accessibility and affordability of electricity to all connected consumers; hence the electricity is the key for any developed country. To make electricity affordable and available to all consumers, many countries started implementing time based pricing to interested consumers. In India, energy tariff is slab wise for the residential load. The philosophy behind this slab wise tariff is to facilitate or reward low energy users and charge extra for high energy users.

But in that case, the middle class group of society has no encouragement for optimal utilization of electricity. Therefore, in such circumstances the real time tariff is very much needed for residential consumers also. They have found that real time tariff is superior than slab wise tariff. In India, it has been a concern for economically poor class.

A policy can be made for consumers below the poverty line or low income group; for them slab wise tariff will be continuing and for rest others, a provision of real time tariff can be made. Hence in this work proposing real time tariff for residential consumers in India. The existing tariff structure for India and other countries is discussed in this work and proposing the solution for the Indian residential sector.

Abstract: The aquaponic systems are the combination of fish and plant culture. These are recirculating systems with two components: hydroponics and aquaculture. In these systems, the food given to fish is metabolized. This metabolized food fulfills the nutrient requirement of plants. This is achieved by the recirculation of water from the aquaculture component to the hydroponic component and back to the aquaculture component. This experiment is conducted to test the effect of recycling of water in a longer period on the growth of iridescent shark and balsam plant in the aquaponic system.

The system developed is 1. In the hydroponic component course aggregate of 0. Coconut husk and sand particle layers of 0. An average quantity of 1 kg of balsam plant leaves was produced in 60 days of plant growth. It has been found that balsam plant and iridescent shark species in this system has a faster and better growth compared to the conventional growth. The water used in the system is completely replaced once in three months after 45 days.

Also, it was recirculated once in 3 days during experimentation. The DO level of fish tank water was dropped below 2 ppm during the span of two successive recirculations. No direct sunlight was available for the plants and no other artificial light source was used in cloudy and humid atmospheric conditions. The experiment also tested the success of the aquaponic system in adverse conditions like unavailability of fresh water for replacement, poor sunlight and minimum DO condition.

The combination of balsam and iridescent shark proved to be suitable for the aquaponic system under such adverse conditions. Abstract: The number of cipher-texts in distributed cloud storage increasing rapidly. An objective function based homomorphic approach is proposed that is reasonable for dynamic cloud storage. The design solves cipher-text class requirements and encryption secret key leakage issue. The goal of this research is to construct and execute an encryption design for open cloud access, based on the metaheuristic objective functional homomorphic viewpoint.

Ciphertext classes are taken from to Delegation ratio is 0 to and file uploading range is 0 to The measurements inspected set-up time, encryption time, extract time, verification time, decryption time, and compression ratio over delegation ratio with compression ratio over numbers of uploaded files. Keywords: Cloud, Cryptography, Objective function, Homomorphic. Neural network which can learn from experience are becoming popular in solving many of real worlds NP-hard problems.

Today any prediction application is taking the support of Neural Network. The accuracy of the neural network models depends on major of the design components like the hidden layers and the activation functions. As we know human brain receives both relevant and irrelevant information at a time and has the capability of segregating both, where the irrelevant can be referred as noise. Just like the human brain the neurons uses activation function to separate the noise from the input and reduce the error.

This paper presents the role of hidden layers and activation functions in measuring the accuracy of the Neural Network. Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks transmit data from source to destination and inform base station using various sensors. However, the routing path through multiple hops of WSNs usually becomes the target of severe attacks. Outmoded cryptographic security techniques have proven to be inefficient against several insider attacks such as wormhole attack, sinkhole attack, Sybil attack, selective forwarding attack, etc.

These attacks further impacts on restating of routing information and also exacerbate identity deception. To handle such instances, trust aware routing can be the alternative to provide a trustworthiness and energy efficient route irrespective of known geographic information or tight time synchronization. Significantly, it is strong against the attacks caused due to identity theft. Besides that WSNs are also vulnerable to the attacks illegally acquiring network resources which is caused by many popular attacks. These attacks are complex as it affect not only the victim but its legitimate members also.

Existing routing techniques could not solve these severe issues. The proposed scheme demonstrated an average throughput of 6. Abstract: The article is devoted to the discussion of the recent trends and reformation of housing and communal services in Uzbekistan introducing ICT to the sphere. The object of the research is the sector of housing and communal services of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

The actuality of the research consists of increasing number of scholars of several developing countries who are interested in how to use the ICT and by this to achieve economic effectiveness both in the scope of country and company. For example, regardless of the reformations and development in this sphere, a row of problems is unsolved. Nowadays population is not satisfied with the supply of communal services; hence the number of complaints on the work of service providers is increasing.

In addition, the problems of expenses and debts above normal and not correctly calculated are remain open. Besides, the problems in the sphere of housing and communal services also arise from the lack of the mechanism of monthly taking measurements from the counters and absence of central database of consumers. The analysis of the main approaches determining the contribution of ICT to the housing and communal sphere, formulation of recommendations relating to the prior directions to achieve the step-by-step informatization of the sphere of housing and communal services makes up the scientific novelty of the research.

The research consists of four parts. Firstly, the role of ICT in the sphere of housing and communal services is explored. Secondly, application of billing system to the sphere of housing and communal services is investigated. Thirdly, reformation of housing and communal services by introducing CRM system is examined. Lastly, introduction of ICT to the sphere of housing and communal services for integration with e-government is discussed.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies ICT , housing and communal services, Customer Relationship Management CRM , billing, e-government, online payment, utilities, reformation, Uzbekistan, automation, informatization, debts, tariffs, management. Abstract: Multipliers are the primal constituents of a processing unit. The process of multiplication is carried out using different suggested architectures. Among the developments the common factor observed is the use of recursive register interface in multiplication operation.

It is needed to minimize the resource requirement to enhance the objective of optimal multiplication operation, in this paper a new low resource adaptive counter based multiplier design is proposed, which minimizes the register requirement by deriving a sub counter logic in multiplier design. Keywords: Multiplier design, adaptive logical count, low resource overhead. Abstract: Security concern in wireless network is a prime issue to overcome to offer better service quality for next generation applications.

To offer robust security in wireless network, a optimal loop trace monitoring approach for security provisioning in wireless network is proposed. The communication packets are then chosen based on the offered security value and the route selected. A higher offering security level route is chosen in data exchange for reliable coding. The simulation results were carried out for the existing reliability factor of data exchange over the proposed approach of loop trace monitoring to validate the proposed work.

Keywords: Secure coding, wireless network, loop trace monitoring and robust reliable coding. The aluminum alloys are used widely in Aviation, Shipbuilding and also in general engineering because it is having many applications in these sectors. Mostly in all the welding processes the purpose is to get welded joint by having its desired weld bead parameters, higher mechanical properties with the low distortion.

The quality of the weld is determined through mechanical properties, bead geometry, and distortion. Abstract: Water is the most essential and foremost constituent for all the organisms living in the earth. Sometimes it would be the major reason for the demolishment of lives when the needed level is increased. This resource is available through low, moderate and high level rainfall and it is preserved in various places for future usages. In this paper we discuss about the disaster caused by water stored in dam. When the storage level of the dam is increased, it is expelled or released without any alarm as a result it squashes many of the lives.

Our main focus is to issue alarms before releasing the water from dam. We use an unmanned method using wireless sensor technique to monitor the water level continuously, if it reaches the saturation point extreme storage level , we propose 3 alarming facilities, as 1.

Sending message to the people located in the area, 2. Provide audio alarm which is battery enabled 3. Make drone alarming UAV to all the people. After the alarming process is done the shutters of the dam is released to expel the water. Keywords: Dam monitoring, Drones, Shutters, Unmanned. Abstract: The quality of fingerprint or fingerprint verification depends on the quality of the fingerprint image.

Most of the fingerprint management algorithms depend on the features which are extracted based on the minutiae of the fingerprints. The quality of minutiae is depends on how good the fingerprint images. The background and foreground of the images are also effect the results of the fingerprint images.

Fingerprint segmentation algorithms are used to extract the finger print image from background. In this paper we are presenting the two fingerprint segmentation algorithms which are the modifications of existing mean and variance based approach and gradient based approach. Keywords: Bio-metric. Fingerprint, Image segmentation. Abstract: Nowadays, all electronic gadgets and devices are in the race of most compact size and least power consumption. Along with it, we want device to do many jobs at a time. For that it needs to be laced with maximum computing power.

In CMP architectures, parallel task execution is done rather than executing task sequentially, as it is done in conventional programming. However, NoC consumes significant percentage of total power. Final objective is to design power efficient NoC. In CMP architecture, many data transfers are done simultaneously. It is required to evolve power saver NOC with unique task scheduling schemes. Our approach enhances network latency, network throughput along with energy reduction. It defines performance of the system with high speed transmission.

It shows improvement in the system performance when experimented with various applications. Here, we concentrated on proper distribution of tasks and network traffic required for execution. One needs to balance between over and under utilization of resources. Analysis of both the cases is done in this article.

Over utilization is injecting excess traffic in the network which leads to heat up problem. Under utilization is, PEs remaining idle for long time resulting in sluggish performance. Here we tried to list various innovative methods for saving network from reaching power wall. Energy modeling and granular traffic analysis gives us accurate estimation of device performance beforehand. Also, analysis is done for various topologies for different tasks. Abstract: MANET networks often form with mobile devices to enable communication and connectivity in time-critical applications. The routing protocol employ in the network often defines the energy efficiency and network performance in ad hoc networks.

In this paper, we propose a directional flooding-based routing approach to improve data reliability and improve packet delivery ratio in MANET network. The proposed routing protocol simulate in the NS2 environment to evaluate network performance of flood-based routing algorithm. Abstract: In this paper, a case of prediction of sample demands for industrial lubricants has been presented.

We have observed that the demand for most of the industrial lubricants depends on three main factors i. These factors are studied and compared with other competitors dealing in similar nature of products. The quality is mapped with three fuzzy parameters viz. The cost is linked with three linguistic variables viz.

Similarly, delivery time is also associated with three sub-parameters viz. First, the raw data of demand for 12 number of random samples are collected from supply chain executives of an automotive and industrial lubricant manufacturing company. Thereafter, the membership functions for the causal factors and demand are built on the basis of comparative analysis and collected data. At last, a fuzzy- inference demand model with rule base is constructed. Finally, the demands are predicted by the skilled fuzzy model.

Predicted data is compared with the raw data and absolute errors are being calculated. The result shows predictions made by the fuzzy-inference demand model are in tune with the actual demands of industrial lubricants. Thus, the built fuzzy model can be utilized and generalized for effective demand forecasting for industrial products. Abstract: Passive tracking of a target using bearings-only measurement which is carried out in underwater scenario is most widely used.

This paper considers the problem of estimating the position and velocity of a target in an underwater scenario. The noise in measurement is more as underwater scenario is considered which leads to less accurate estimation. Particle filter PF which is a non-linear filter is considered for this problem. In PF, all particles are assigned with weights based on their likelihood computed with respect to obtained measurements. The weights assigned to the particles, after certain time period tend to equal values called sample impoverishment.

The main difficulty using PF is sample degeneracy and sample impoverishment. Evaluation of the algorithm is assessed based on the best convergence time of the solution for many scenarios using MATLAB software. Abstract: Net Asset value NAV prediction is considered as a financial time series forecasting problem. Different linear and nonlinear time series forecasting models have been used in NAV prediction by various researchers.

The individual models are trained with conventional LMS algorithm. It is a weighted linear ensemble model where the weights are optimized using a modified Whale Optimization Algorithm. The empiricalforecasting performance of the modified Whale Optimization Algorithm based ensemble model along with GA and PSO based ensemble models and the individual models are analyzed. The results demonstrate that the proposed ensemble model outperforms the other models. The principle of separating control plane and data plane has opened up many opportunities for researchers to deploy new innovations.

The central and single point of managing the whole network is SDN controller. This gives the system the weaknesses of being a single point of failure. This issue of failure can be solved using a cluster which is comprised of multiple instances of a SDN controller. In case of failure of one instance, other will come into play and manages the system. Advantages and Issues of clustering in ODL are also discussed. Employing SDN in modern networks provides the much-needed agility and visibility to orchestrate and deploy network solutions. But from the security perspectives in terms of threat attack prediction and risk mitigation, especially for the advanced persistent attacks such as DDoS and side channel attacks in Clouds, SDN stack control plane saturation attacks, switch flow table exhaustion attacks - there are still open challenges in SDN environments.

In this paper, at first, we present the taxonomy of threats, risks and attack vectors that can disrupt the SDN stack and present various approaches to solve these problems, to deploy SDN securely in production environments. We survey existing research on SDN and the results of our thorough analysis, comparative study of key principles, trade-offs and evaluation of the well-known techniques for SDN security are also presented.

To address the key shortcomings and limitations of the existing solutions, we propose our future work a novel framework to effectively monitor and tackle the SDN security issues. Our proposed framework includes a dynamic security se- mantic monitoring system that decouples monitoring from packet forwarding, and offers flexible fine-grained monitoring, which also integrate well with the SDN architecture.

This system will employ machine-learning techniques for fingerprinting, accurate detection of behavioral patterns; attack flows and anomalies in the SDN based networks. Abstract: In recent years, we have seen the rise of application specific attacks that exploit the vulnerabilities in the network protocols HTTP, DNS, SMTP, other and try to overwhelm the server application, not just the connectivity pipe.

In this paper, we propose an advanced DoS Threat Analytics System DTAS to mitigate the full range of DoS network attacks — not just volumetric, based on comprehensive collaborative detection algorithms, implemented in the Elasticsearch Big Data platform. DTAS security solution is driven by powerful threat detection algorithms that: a dissects all attack probabilities in the network traffic, b Uses behavioural analytics to correlate multiple parameters and generate multi-vector representations, c Employs dynamic challenges to verify normal versus attack traffic.

By measuring all these attributes, our system creates a multi-vector heuristic representation of the normal or baseline traffic flows. We have used datasets from UCLA, downloaded traces from real world incidents and tested the efficacy of the system with various large-scale simulated DoS attacks in the test network.

Unplanned network load degrades individual node performance, preventing instant path switch-over. This increases overloading of the nodes and henceforth resulting in drops. We propose a two-phase optimization algorithm in a hybrid manner assimilating Ant Colony Optimization ACO and Genetic Approach GA to improve load handling capacity of the nodes with improved packet delivery at the destination.

Both node and path selection are favored by conditional optimization in both the phases; concentrating in minimum switch-over and higher delivery rate. Precise path and neighbor selection by improved load handling capability minimizes packet drop and control overhead. Abstract: Now a days wireless power Transfer Systems are used mainly to transfer the small amount of power within short distances.

In medical fields WPT systems are used to charge the Bio-devices like pacemakers without any contact and transfer the energy in magnetic medium. These all applications are low power devices. Even Electric vehicles are having many advantages there are some problems erupted when it encounter with the users. One of the main disadvantages is charging infrastructure. Because it is vulnerable to some conditions like Weather, Vandalism and Electrocution. In this paper, Overview of distinctive kinds of Wireless Power Transfer technologies has given and simple design of closed and open loop WPT systems in mat lab were given.

Further, a comparison has been made in between the mat lab simulation of both open and closed loop systems and different cable systems and wireless power transfer systems. A route is needed to share this information while sending data from one device to another device the network route or data can be attacked, to avoid this attacks a device trust mechanism is a useful mechanism to reduce data loss. Keywords: IoT, routing, trust, routing attack, trust mechanism. Abstract: Travelling is a part of our daily life. We all travel from one place to another. The ultimate aim of people is to reach the destination as soon as possible.

In wide-scale urbanization processes the route planning is the problem, whilst addressed thoroughly for a single traveler in terms of shortest path computation, becomes quickly unwieldy when dealing with a set of travelers. Smart cities and developed countries are now taking efforts to tackle urban pollution and current travel planners concentrate mainly on travel time and distance to be covered.

Here, in addition to distance, air quality and road congestion that affect travel time, crowd sourcing is also considered for finding the best and healthier route. Ant colony optimization is used to select among different routes also used to find optimal route considering the air quality, congestion, distance are used as the parameters for pheromone updation. Here we provide a congestion-less and eco-friendlier route with the help of Google map API and ant colony optimization by exploiting feedback-driven on participation and route suggestions from personal interest.

In this sense, collective intelligence and swarm based paradigms are adapted to an innovative crowd sourcing pattern towards the data storage is cloud. In particular the stigmergic algorithm for probabilistic route planning, including the distributed crowd sourcing paradigm based on number of participants, has been used to find the optimal path finding using ACO ant colony optimization.

Abstract: Now a days the rechargeable batteries are used in many applications. The rectifier is basically used to charge a battery. This paper discusses front end PWM rectifier based battery charging technique with its performances and for generation of gate pulses using modulation technique namely sine pulse width modulation SPWM. This paper also features the description of 2-level front end PWM rectifier, Diode bridge rectifier, Thyristor based rectifier based battery charging and control strategy.

Abstract: Innovation is a driver of a long-term economic growth and structural change for economic progress. Innovation must increase value for both the company and the consumer. For consumers, innovation means higher quality and better value goods, more efficient services, and a higher standard of living.

For the innovative company, innovation is a competitive advantage, adaptation, a meaning of existence and growth. The software industry has a leading role in that process because it possesses the technology and the knowledge, which are key elements in every innovation process. The software is becoming a widespread phenomenon in modern economies, which plays a significant role in the growing number of new products and processes. Creating innovations isconsidered to be the only skill that software companies should possess in order to stay competitive on the market and provide benefits to society.

The productivity of the manufacturing processes in different sectors of the economy depends on the extent to which software innovations are developed. The research paper focuses on the innovations created by software companies and aims to underline the key success factors that determine the development of successful innovations. These key factors ensure that both the innovative companies and the customers receive value from the innovations. The presented key factors are based on literature reviews and a broader survey on the commercialization of innovations in the software industry in Bulgaria.

The empirical research is conducted in December , among 33 software companies, which have innovation activities in the period under review. The surveyed period ranges from to The defined key success factors of innovations could be used by software companies worldwide in their efforts and desire to create innovations of a value. Keywords: innovation, key factors, product innovation, software industry. Abstract: Background. Recently, web applications have proliferated rapidly, with the world increasingly dependent on financial transactions, purchasing, billing, education, medicine, and many more.

But the security of these applications is worrying where any vulnerability might lead to breaches causing huge damages. In order to increase the security of these applications towards injection attacks, developers have followed a series of procedures, one of them is encrypting parameters and data before sending it.

Decrypting these parameters gives attackers opportunities to target web application by launching injection attacks. In order to implement the proposed methodology, a scanner called DEHP has been developed, DEHP employ a black-box approach to analyze targeted web applications. NET framework. DEHP has been tested towards many web applications taking into consideration laws governing for such applications.

Crawling speed was very good due to use traditional crawlers, detecting vulnerabilities speed was good using a dictionary attack the database needs to be extended , by using brute-force attack speed was bad due to miss a suitable test bed and resources for such type of attacks. Results of DEHP were compared with similar open-source applications but none of them care about decryption of encrypted hidden parameters.

Security means, network security as well as network data security problems. To avoid such type of problems, we have several protocols for secure routing or secure communication in the MANETs. However, all implemented protocols provide either security to the network data or protect networks from the various attacks. But, no one protocol provides the parallel solution to this existing problem.

Through this extension work, we can prove that the proposed mechanism is an energy-aware as well secure framework for MANETs. Abstract: The discovery of automobiles have reduced the travelling time considerably but in recent times the outburst in vehicle usage and unprecedented planning of infrastructure activities regarding the future vehicular occupancy on road has lead to traffic accumulation on roads their by making it difficult for ambulances and other vehicles to reach the destination of time there by costing people their valuable human life.

The proposed system helps in detecting the ambulance when it reaches a signal junction, their by clearing the signal in the path of the ambulance once the detection as taken place. It reduces the delay time to large extent and also ensures the safe flow of traffic when the ambulance passes the junction their reducing manual escorting efforts.

The system converts the video feed provided to it into frames and takes frames at a specific interval then checks for the presence of the standard template in the given frame by using cross correlation technique and upon match the system detects the ambulance, else repeats it after specific interval of time.

Keywords: Video, template, cross correlation. Abstract: Information exchange between items things , having detecting or registering capacities or both over the web is known as the Internet of Things IoT. IoT and Cloud computing coordinated to shape a stage called IoTcloud. Since these advancements are altogether utilized, there is a requirement for the security of information accumulated from the gadgets associated through these advances.

To solve the transport issue in the symmetric key algorithm and to acquire the high performance, the proposed method and RSA algorithm are combined together. While actualizing the proposed framework, the symmetric key algorithm utilizes low RAM for preparing, in this way, it gives rapid. RSA is one of the best and secures asymmetric encryption method. Here it is used only to encrypt the symmetric key, for this, it requires a negligible computational cost.

The proposed method using DNA cryptography and Huffman coding for encrypting and decrypting data. DNA Cryptography can have a special advantage for secure authentication, data storage, steganography, digital signatures and so on. Huffman code is a sort of ideal prefix code. What's more, it is ordinarily utilized for lossless information compression. This methodology utilizes variable key length so aggressor won't almost certainly surmise the length of the key recognition.

Abstract: Underwater target tracking is a pivotal area in the present scenario. In this paper, passive target tracking is accomplished. By using bearings-only measurements, the parameters like range, course and speed of the target with respect to observer are calculated which helps in determining the target motion. As bearings-only tracking is non-linear in nature, traditional Kalman filter which is linear filter, cannot be used.

So, Particle filter PF which is non-linear filter is preferred. To avoid sample impoverishment, resampling of the particles is done after every iteration. So, stratified resampling which can give greater precision is used to reduce the sample impoverishment problem. Estimating the performance of the algorithm depending on their convergence time is carried out.

Abstract: Solar PV power generation is the best option compared to the fossil fuel based power plants now-a-days. Definitely the thermal and nuclear power plant will retire in the future due to the development of the above mentioned. It is extensively developing in the world compared to other renewable options in hand ,cost of manufacturing and installation costs are coming down.

This paper discusses an enhanced PV solar power system design with a MPPT controller as a function of temperature compared to other techniques where dealt with variable sunirradiance ,unshaded ,partial shading. This will help designers and maintenance directors in designing stage and maintenance process. Abstract: Feature extraction involves feature detection, description and matching which is the baseline of many computer vision applications like content based image retrieval, image classification, image recognition, object detection etc.

Features detected should have greater repeatability and should be able to derive descriptors out of it that are highly distinctive and robust to changes in scale, orientation, rotation, illumination etc. The evaluation is carried out in an experimental setup of object category detection which uses a SVM classifier to detect the category. Abstract: One of the constituent of concrete is natural sand or river sand. The issues of environmental degradation and expensive nature of the river sand are increasing day by day. The Global consumption of natural sand or river sand has become more due to excessive use of concrete so that the demand of river sand is very high and there is shortage of good quality of river sand.

These reasons make us to switch on the alternative sources. Many researches has been done yet to replace the river sand. The objective of this research is to an experimental study of concrete using eco sand as a replacement of fine aggregates. Eco sand acts like filler minerals which helps to reduce pores, reduce moisture resistivity. M40 grade of concrete is taken for study. The rheology studies are also made in detail as the fine content of concrete increases, the water demand increases to make it workable.

Keywords: Eco sand, Replacement of fine aggregates, River sand, Strength comparison, Super plasticizer. Abstract: Adders are the basic logical elements of arithmetic circuits in any microprocessor or digital signal processor. These act as basic blocks and are widely used components in digital integrated circuits. Optimizing such blocks increase the performance of integrated circuits. A small amount of area or delay reduction leads to great improvement in the performance.

Carry chain plays a major role in adders on which the speed of an adder depends. Several adders have been proposed earlier to overcome the problems associated with area, power consumption and speed. Carry select adder is one among the adders with better performance. Carry select adder is favored broadly because it limits the issue of carry propagation delay. However, it occupies more area and power because of the repetitive blocks in the design. In this article, various available design methodologies of carry select adder, such as carry select adder using carry lookahead adder, square-root carry select adder using common Boolean logic, altered XOR gate and binary-to-excess-1 converter, have been discussed.

The efficacy of all the design methodologies have been investigated by comparing the parameters like area, delay and power consumption. The design with high efficacy can be used in high speed multiplication, arithmetic logic units, advanced microprocessor design and so on. All the architectures are simulated in Cadence Virtuoso Analog Design Environment and gpdk library was utilized.

Keywords: Cadence, Carry select adder, Ripple carry adder, Propagation delay. Abstract: Quality assessment of water has a lot of attractions during recent years. Diverse kinds of classification and monitoring techniques were used in this field of study. The present examination investigates the quality of ground water in Kudankulam which is situated Tirunelveli district of Tamil Nadu.

A total of 19 samples was accumulated in this region typically from the coastal area during The evaluation was done on the basis chemical parameters of each samples. A near investigation of characterization systems was done dependent on the confusion matrix, accuracy, f1 score, precision and recall. The outcomes propose that SVM is a better method having high accuracy rate than other models. Abstract: Literature review has revealed that operation lifetime of roller bearings is a factor determining reliability of automotive machinery. In order to increase the lifetime of roller bearings, it is proposed to modify their grease.

This method can be applied during machinery operation and does not require for additional chemical—thermal and mechanical treatment of bearings involving complicated and expensive equipment. A modified grease was experimentally developed on the basis of Lithol, Russian standard GOST with nanosized metal particles obtained by plasma recondensation.

Comparative tribological experiments of commercial grease and nanosized grease demonstrated efficiency of the latter. The acquired experimental results demonstrated that gamma-percentile life of the bearings operating with the developed grease was by 2. Keywords: operation lifetime, roller bearings, greasing composition, metal nanoparticles. Abstract: Heart disease diagnosis has become a difficult task in the field of medicine. The tremendous improvement in the field of machine learning aim at developing intelligent automated systems which helps the medical practitioners in predicting as well as making decisions about the disease.

Such an automated system for medical diagnosis would enhance timely medical care followed by proper subsequent treatment thereby resulting in significant life saving. Incorporating the techniques of classification in these intelligent systems achieve at accurate diagnosis. Neural Networks has emerged as an important method of classification. Multi-layer Perceptron Neural Network with Back-propagation has been employed as the training algorithm in this work. This paper proposes a diagnostic system for predicting heart disease.

For diagnosis of heart disease 14 significant attributes are used in proposed system as per the medical literature. The results tabulated evidently prove that the designed diagnostic system is capable of predicting the risk level of heart disease effectively when compared to other approaches. Method: A total of hundred residential buyers who previously purchased minimum one asset namely Independent house, flat in apartment and vacant land in Guntur, Andhra Pradesh are participated in the survey.

The total data analysis for the study was done through SPSS tool. Result: Chi-Square test results for both the hypotheses shows P-Value of 0. The Weighted Scores also taken for rational and behavioral factors. So it is indicating that buyers are saving their part of income for buying property and buyers are giving much significance for their own individual analysis rather than merely depending on others.

Conclusion: From the present analysis it is observed that the impact of rational factors is comparatively high on decisions. So the rationality in decision making of property buyers in residential realty market is a fact and we could also understand that the buyers are giving much value for their own individual analysis rather than purely depending on others in decision making. This study enriches the understanding of the role that rational and behavioral factors play in residential property market, with specific reference to emerging markets.

Keywords: Rational factors, Behavioral factors, Residential property buyers, residential realty market. Abstract: The current study deals with the steady flow of a nanofluid under the influence of magnetic field, heat radiation with prescribed external flow of mixed convective boundary layer flow over a vertical circular cylinder. The radiative heat loss is modelled by Rosseland approximation. Similarity variables are used to remodel the partial differential equations into ordinary differential equations. The remodeled equations are solved numerically by the technique of Runge- Kutta —Fehlberg with shooting.

During this study nano particle Alumina Al2O3 with water and kerosene as the base fluids is studied. For Alumina-water and Alumina-kerosene, nanofluid the nanoparticle volume fraction influences on velocity temperature are presented graphically. The impact of pertinent parameters on velocity and temperatures are resolute and details are mentioned through several plots. The coefficient of skin friction and local Nusselt number for different pertinent parameters are discussed and presented graphically. Keywords: Mixed convection, nanofluids, nano particle volume fraction, vertical circular cylinder, magnetic parameter, heat source parameter, radiation parameter.

Abstract: In present scenario, the importance of Hand Gesture Object Recognition is widely used in many real time applications.

  1. Ecological Houses;
  2. Neurodynamics of Cognition and Consciousness (Understanding Complex Systems).
  3. Carbohydrate Research.
  4. Audio Engineering 101: A Beginners Guide to Music Production.

The purpose of this work is to investigate and develop more effective and more accurate system than the earlier developed System. The purpose of this system is to speed up the recognition process because these systems take more training and testing time. This work presents a method for HGOR for the Static hand position to get the meaning for machine interaction.

Also, this work is used for facial expression recognition based on hand gesture position surrounding the face to get better position for communication through machine in HCI. Abstract: The network traffic is increasing exponentially. Managing the vulnerabilities and threats become a major issue due to the heavy volume of data involved. To deal with such problems, network administrators use their experience and understanding of different applications running in their network, to monitor the packet traffic.

Here identification and classification of different application that dumps data into the network, becomes challenging. The traditional way is by using behavioral signatures such as port number, application header, transmission frequency, destination IP etc. Although this is still the popular method, it can be beaten by malicious apps and users, by random port changes, proxies, protocol tunneling, and many other tricks. To overcome this issue a technique called flow feature-based analysis can be employed. In this paper, we present a deep learning-based data signature analyses which will identify applications by analyzing the information in traffic flow and some results we have observed.

Mainly we are using convolutional neural network based classification and autoencoder based feature extraction to improve the efficiency. Abstract: Composites have gained the interest of research scholars over conventional materials due to their productive advantage. Specifically Metal Matrix Composites MMCs , which have comparatively higher strength are widely preferred than other available matrices. Reinforcements have certain properties that are expected to be attained in the composites.

Based on our observations from literature collected earlier, we have used Electroless Coating Technique to coat copper on Carbon Nano Tubes. These copper coated Carbon Nano Tubes were later used as reinforcement materials in Metal Matrix Composites preparation in which Aluminium alloy Al was used as the base matrix. Stir casting method was chosen for fabrication of composites. Abstract: Solid waste management is one of the common problem where every city requires the solution.

With increase in urbanization, there is a tremendous increase in production of waste materials. The municipality authorities provides the services for waste production to surroundings and ourselves hygiene. In order to ensure the efficient waste management process, we use a solid waste bin with integration of sensing systems and algorithms.

Human detective sensing device detects the motion of object near the bin and opens the lid which is interlinked with lid sensing device. Waste filling level sensing device measures the height and gives the information about the waste filled in bin and sends and alert message which helps us to prevent the overflow and bin were collected only when they are completely filled. Keywords: Solid waste management, integration, sensing systems. Abstract: BLDC motors are the latest option for research people due to their inherent features like high efficiency, constant flux density low maintenance requirements there by it acquire greater reliability.

These motors are best suited for many applications, but it needs developments in sensorless control methods to overcome the draw backs of the sensor-based techniques. Within the available control strategies, the flux linkage function-based control strategy is certainly appropriate for BLDC motor even at low-speed range. This paper presents working and behavior of BLDC motor with various controlling techniques with closed loop operation, the function of sensors and its importance, different sensor based and sensorless control techniques were discussed.

Abstract: Non-Conventional energy sources are predominantly used in generation of power as there is no fuel cost, pollution free and low maintenance. Among various resources available PV and wind are most important sources due to its availability and easy to convert into electrical energy. A rapid increase of photovoltaic power generators and wind turbines are designed and many installations took place in recent years.

Developments of countries are depended on electricity and it is becoming harder to generate from conventional sources and they become extinct in recent years. This can be resolved by substantial increase of generation of power from renewable energy sources. Sources are intermittent in nature due to which there are some problems like Maximum Power Extraction during Generation, mitigation of undesirable constraints in Distribution Demand Side and protection of multiple DG systems connected grid, with the use of latest passive techniques to work at balanced islanding.

To resolve these problems one has to use intelligent algorithms for better accuracy and efficiency. We mainly focused in literature about various MPPT techniques and problems raised during Integration under various conditions. Mudigonda harish kumar, C. Freeda christy.

Naman Agarwal, Ajit Kumar. Niki D. Beskou, Stephanos V. Tsinopoulos, GeorgeD. Assessment of geogrids in gravel roads under cyclic loading, Alexandria engineering journal , Pages Prasad and G. Prasada Raju. Yash Pandey, Dr. Sangita and Dr. Vandana Tare. Arabian Journal of Chemistry. Shafabakhsh, M. Sadeghnejad, Y. Sujatha, N. Masoodhu Banu, S. Karthigai Lakshmi. Gerhardinger, D. Ehrlich and M.

Kumar and T. Leitloff, S. Hinz and U. Aaron J. Heller, Yvan G. Kembhavi, D. Harwood and L. Grabner, T. Nguyen, B. Gruber and H. McCord, C. Merry and P. Viangteeravat and A. Kharghanian and A. Sujatha, C. Ashourian, N. Daneshmandpour, O. Sharifi Tehrani, P. Dalla Mura, J. Benediktsson, B. Waske and L. Sujatha, and D. Thomas Robinson, S. References: Ji, Q. Real-time nonintrusive monitoring and prediction of driver fatigue. IEEE transactions on vehicular technology, 53 4 , Ueno, H. Development of drowsiness detection system.

Hayami, T.

Detecting drowsiness while driving by measuring eye movement-a pilot study. In Intelligent Transportation Systems, Suzuki, M. Measurement of driver's consciousness by image processing-a method for presuming driver's drowsiness by eye-blinks coping with individual differences. In Systems, Man and Cybernetics, A visual approach for driver inattention detection. Pattern Recognition, 40 8 , Hsu, R. Face detection in color images. IEEE transactions on pattern analysis and machine intelligence, 24 5 , Zuraida, R. International Journal of Technology, 2, Puspasari, M.

Fatigue measurement in car driving activity using physiological, cognitive, and subjective approaches. International Journal of Technology, 6 6 , Svensson, U. Blink behaviour based drowsiness detection: method development and validation. Wilkinson, V. The accuracy of eyelid movement parameters for drowsiness detection. Journal of clinical sleep medicine, 9 12 , Mardi, Z. EEG-based drowsiness detection for safe driving using chaotic features and statistical tests. Journal of medical signals and sensors, 1 2 , Celenk, M.

In particular, Human-Computer Interfaces HCI denote the area of computer science concerned with the interaction between users and electronic systems, for example, by means of graphic interfaces or acoustic signals. This research direction thus comprises usability engineering, e-learning, interaction, and information design, among others. Immediately addressing the user, it touches many areas commonly studied by psychologists. In particular, the discipline of affective computing recognizes, reacts to, or mimics human affect [ 37 ].

More narrowly focused, Human-Robot Interaction focuses on the interface between users and humanoid robots, thus also touching on aspects of psychology. Yet, originating in HCI, these areas of research commonly focus on individual users and, up to now, have rarely utilized Big Data technologies. They, too, can thus benefit from the development of Psychoinformatics. The collaboration between computer science and psychology will finally allow the latter to more practically apply many of their scientific results. Up to now, much quantitative research in psychology could admittedly have enjoyed more practical impact.

By this we mean that important research in psychology is conducted in carefully designed laboratory experiments or questionnaire studies, where it is unclear if results can be generalized to real life. Now, however, results from psychology can be validated in everyday life and integrated into the logic of IT systems. Cars will recognize when drivers are sleepy or agitated. Learning software will realize when a student's attention is slipping. These applications will provide immediate practical value, not only to novel findings but also to many psychological results from previous decades.

Of course, this also raises the question of whether Psychoinformatics will create its own unique research agenda. From the literature reviewed in this paper, it becomes clear that Psychoinformatics allows for many psychological research questions to be revisited and tested outside of strict laboratory settings, in everyday life. As mentioned, many important psychological insights have been derived in laboratory settings and therefore testing such results on a wider scale in diverse settings will pose a great challenge.

In addition, as with every new interdisciplinary research endeavor, we are convinced that new questions will also arise, extending beyond traditional research questions in both fields.

Henry Papers Database

On this point, we present an example from our own work on the Menthal app see detailed description in the Appendix. When we launched the Menthal project, we aimed to answer the rather simple but important question of how the smartphone dominates our lives. Our custom-made application tracked thousands of smartphones, recording how long participants used their phones each day and which applications are most used and most distract us from important tasks.

Some initial results arising from this project are presented in more detail below. Moreover, by considering the GPS signal, it would be possible to combine information from a person's location and smartphone activity with sociodemographic information on the region a person stays in. It is also possible to investigate how the behavior of a person is influenced by the weather at a given moment. In principle, the smartphone data, including its time and location point, could be linked to many external variables.

In short, the enormous volume of data from large samples allows the possibility of answering many research questions, which were previously unconsidered. Clearly, this also poses fundamental challenges for ethics committees in determining what can and cannot be studied after the data has been collected.

While smartphones and social networks may be an important source for understanding individual's psychological processes, we must also be mindful that these devices are designed for social interaction. Thus, the question arises, to what extent individual processes determined from smartphones truly represent an individual's internal processes or whether this information is influenced by their interactions with others through the smartphone. Currently, the work that falls within the domain of Psychoinformatics is quite scattered. First, it is published in two rather separate scientific communities psychology and computer science.

Second, these are further fragmented in various subcommunities and different journals , which are not necessarily aware of one another's findings. In general, researchers employ a range of techniques on a variety of data sets, using orthogonal methodologies and pursuing a broad set of research goals. In recent years, a growing number of studies have been conducted, which broadly fit in the category of Psychoinformatics. The term itself has been independently coined by several workgroups [ 3 , 4 ]. These studies mainly deal with data sources close to the World Wide Web, such as social networks.

We provide a brief review of studies predicting psychological variables from online social networks, such as Facebook, or communication channels, such as Twitter. In their seminal study, Kosinski et al. The prediction accuracy for the Big Five of Personality was between. Individual differences in personality were assessed with the International Personality Item Pool. Of interest, correlations of a similar magnitude between smartphone call variables and personality have also been reported [ 20 ].

Recently, Kosinski et al. By studying the communication platform Twitter, Querica et al. Extraverted humans can be described as socially outgoing and reward sensitive, optimistic, and sometimes impulsive [ 41 — 43 ]. Qiu et al. Agreeable humans are likeable people and easily adjust to others [ 45 ]. Bai et al. In this study, variables such as number of friends or followers on the microblog were correlated with personality.

In sum, a growing number of studies present empirical evidence that data from human-machine-interaction e. Aside from exploiting data from these prominent social media networks, new studies also consider smartphones. In line with the aforementioned studies on Facebook and Twitter, Montag et al. While it may appear trivial that extraverts were associated with a range of call variables on the smartphone as extraverts are socially outgoing, one would expect extraverts to use their phone more , it is noteworthy that Psychoinformatics helps researchers understand which of the large number of call variables on a smartphone is most strongly linked to extraversion.

Considering variables such as duration of calls, number of outgoing calls, number of incoming calls, and distinct users called, it becomes clear that this question is not as easy to answer as it initially appears. In the study by Montag et al. An earlier study by Chittaranjan et al. Going beyond personality and classic smartphone usage, another recent study provides some initial insights into the relationship between WhatsApp behavior and personality [ 48 ]. Again, extraverts reached more out to their social networks in terms of longer WhatsApp usage. In addition, low conscientious persons stayed longer on WhatsApp [ 48 ].

Low conscientious people could be characterized as being less diligent and often not on time. Instead of following their everyday routines, they procrastinate over work tasks and spend too much time on their smartphones. A key advantage of using Psychoinformatics methods to investigate smartphone addiction is highlighted by recent work demonstrating significant time distortion associated with smartphone use, suggesting that smartphone users may be unable to accurately assess the duration of time they spend using their device [ 2 , 49 ].

Dufau et al. Here, it may be possible to observe fluctuations in cognitive functions via the smartphone, which lends itself to the study of cognitive decline in aging societies such as Germany. The study by Dufau et al. In psychology, the terms validity and reliability are central concepts to the quality and generalizability of findings from psychological studies.

Before we can consider results from Psychoinformatics alongside evidence collected from classic psychological approaches, whether data gathered from questionnaires via smartphones or similar channels yield the same psychometric properties as data obtained via paper-pencil questionnaires must be systematically tested. Although this is likely as research has shown that paper-pencil and online questionnaires are comparable with respect to psychometric properties, e.

Studies investigating human-machine interaction beyond smartphones or online social networks are rather scarce. Interesting first examples show that the extraction of data from onboard diagnostics OBD of cars will be able to identify reckless driving behavior [ 51 , 52 ] and connecting your fridge to the Internet may help you to follow a healthier diet plan [ 53 ]. This perspective must also be extended to neuroscience, due to the increasing number of psychologists, who also work in the field of neuroscience [ 54 — 56 ]. Such researchers aim to understand the links between cognition, motivation, and emotion with brain structure and function and its underlying biochemistry.

In recent years, much research has sought to establish links between personality and human brain structure, albeit with heterogenous outcomes [ 57 , 58 ]. This is also true for molecular genetics [ 59 ]. In both fields, problems in replicating results can be linked to differences in preprocessing of imaging data e. Clearly, a central challenge lies in achieving a sufficient sample size e. To elucidate these problems, let us consider a number of examples: Trying to understand how individual differences in trait anxiety arise from the human brain, researchers need to choose from the correct neuroscientific tools, as well as from an arsenal of self-report inventories.

Unfortunately, many of these self-report measures are only modestly correlated and so the outcome of the research will be highly dependent on the chosen measure of anxiety [ 61 ]. The problems of self-report inventories could be significantly reduced by combining observed behavior from Psychoinformatics with neuroscientific data. By applying these methods, real behavior in one study can be made comparable with real behavior in another study. This could lead to better replication of results, as the same dependent variables are investigated. For example, the study by Kern et al. Thus, quantifying the use of such words in different communications channels by means of text mining would produce an interesting variable to be combined with neuroscientific data.

Moreover, personality traits should be reasonably stable across all kinds of different behaviors and diverse situations in everyday life please see information on the personality paradox by Mischel and Shoda [ 63 ]; they describe how stability of personality must be established across different contexts, e.

Clearly, tracking and use of this data even for scientific purposes poses great ethical challenges, which we discuss in the following. Another example for the importance of the inclusion of real life behavior in neuroscientific research endeavors bases on findings from the study by Bickart et al. They observed that the size of the amygdala is positively correlated with the size of participants' social network. In this study, the size of the social network was assessed by a self-report questionnaire called Social Network Index SNI [ 64 ]. Aside from this research on personality and social networks, a large number of research topics such as mood or wellbeing can also benefit from the inclusion of Psychoinformatics methods.

The methodology thus continues the tradition of the experience sampling method ESM , which has been used in psychology for many years. In such paradigms, participants wear a tracker in everyday life and are asked at random intervals what they are doing and feeling over the course of the day. The ultimate aim of Psychoinformatics, however, is that participants will no longer be asked directly, as these questions can be answered by the data from human-machine interaction. This would be least invasive for the participant. Of course, much neuroscientific research will always depend on strictly controlled experimental conditions.

This is particularly true for imaging studies, such as those using MRI. On the other hand, mobile EEG systems are already in existence and have been used to record brain activity in environments such as zero-gravity [ 65 ] and other more natural settings [ 66 ]. In addition, biological variables such as cortisol measures or genetic samples can be collected in the field with relative ease and can be combined with data derived from Psychoinformatics e. In short, neuroscientific techniques differ strongly in their applicability to be included in the field outside the laboratory.

Psychologists may also be wary of sacrificing their long established methods to rapidly evolving technologies. We argue that this will not be the case. Again, self-report, classic lab-based experiments or interviews will not be eliminated but rather compared and enhanced with what can be objectively observed. In particular, biases in one's own perception and actual recorded behavior will make it possible to add a new layer to both research and counseling.

Papers 1–11

In this context, we strongly believe that Psycho neuro informatics will also have an impact on behavioral neuroscience. Figure 1 illustrates this relationship in more detail. This figure shows that genes and the environment interact and shape hormone and neurotransmitter levels [ 68 , 69 ]. In the future, more and more studies will also investigate how the environment can influence methylation patterns and make genetic information available. Again, the measure of environmental variables can be enhanced by incorporating real recorded behavior from everyday life.

Following from this, we are of the opinion that the growing field of epigenetics can also profit from the inclusion of methods from Psychoinformatics [ 70 ]. All in all, molecular genetics, epigenetics, hormones, neurotransmitter systems, neurons, and so forth represent the biochemical foundations of brain structure and function. Individual differences in the structure and function of the human brain might then be able to explain individual differences in personality traits and other related psychological variables.

Finally, we include a dashed line in the figure. This line refers to the possibility of applying machine learning algorithms to neuroscientific data. This is already common practice and so we will not discuss the point further here but refer readers to the work of Nouretdinov et al.

Thus, we argue that Psychoinformatics must be incorporated into the assessment of human behavior, as such recorded behavior may be more closely linked to our biology than self-report assessments. Future research can establish whether this assumption is correct. The core challenge for Psycho neuro informatics lies in its interdisciplinarity. Neither psychology nor computer science can achieve this level of progress independently. Psychologists lack the ability to construct large-scale tracking systems and to manage the resulting data.

Thus, they stand to benefit from methods of data modeling and mining. Computer scientists, on the other hand, lack the domain expertise, as well as the long tradition of ethically sound research on human subjects. Both sciences have yet to establish common ground, a canonical approach, terminology, and methodology. Accordingly, both sciences need to cultivate a common research culture. Currently, results in computer science are largely published at large conferences; journal articles frequently only extend previous conference publications.

Psychology on the other hand publishes predominantly in equally peer-reviewed journals. Hence, both sciences have a different speed of publication. Similarly, universities must adapt to interdisciplinary research undertakings. They need to support careers that are not particularly advanced inside computer science but conduct groundbreaking research in collaboration with psychologists. Or they need to establish corresponding degree programs and departments.

Equally, funding agencies need to be open to interdisciplinary applications. As with any technological paradigm shift, there are ethical challenges to be addressed. Naturally, data privacy is a major concern. However, psychological research has dealt with private and intimate data since its inception and has an established code of conduct for handling data, which can be readily adapted to include digital data. More problematic issues arise, when psychological findings are put to practice in Big Data applications. While these questions must be addressed, they will become part of a wider discussion regarding the use of Big Data technologies.

Additionally, further ethical issues must be expected to arise over the coming years. In particular, different political systems might handle data protection issues in a different way. Finally, the scientific community has to address data access as a new factor influencing the work of researchers. Today, many publications require scientists to disclose industry funding. After all, such a relationship may result in a conflict of interests and, in the worst case, could influence research or results. It must, therefore, become mandatory for scientists to disclose proprietary access to data from any external source that might trigger a conflict of interests.

While Psychoinformatics is still in its infancy and may not even be recognized as such, the path ahead is clearly laid out. Over the next decade, we will see numerous and massive research undertakings between psychology and computer science. The sooner the research community realizes that these efforts are not singular events but part of a paradigm shift, the sooner the two sciences can establish common ground, canonical methodologies, and taxonomies, as well as common ethical standards. And, eventually, this novel research direction will establish a field of its own.

The next decade will see an increasing number of research undertakings, residing squarely between computer science and psychology. Most might not be coined as Psychoinformatics. Many might not involve traditionally trained computer scientists or psychologists. Some might not even be aware that they are pursuing a psychological question. Yet, intentional or not, computer science will, to some degree, change the basic methodologies in psychology. This project illustrates how a study in Psychoinformatics develops and can be conducted.

Menthal assesses smartphone usage on a very large scale. In less than ten years, smartphones have dramatically altered how we communicate, navigate, date, play, and travel. The resulting changes in our society are evident, yet they have not been scientifically studied. We wanted to log how people actually spend their time on the phone. This behavior was to be assessed directly via the phone, objectively, without relying on self-reports. The question remained: how to incentivize large numbers of users to provide insight into their phone behavior.

To attract users, we developed an app that tracks users' smartphone usage see Figure 2. It informs users how long they use their phone, how often they flick on their phones, and which apps are most prominent in one's own user history, and so forth. Smartphone users can then decide if their phone behavior is questionably high and track progress on reducing it.

On a technical level, the app sends raw data e. The latter computes the corresponding aggregate functions e. This data also remains on our servers for scientific analysis. In essence, we thus copy the business model of Google: we provide a free and useful service; in return, the users contribute their data. We communicate the approach openly via an informed consent form completed by the participant during app installation.

This application also offers participants the option of contributing additional information on their personality or daily mood. By providing us with this information, they again receive feedback on their personality scores or see how their mood changes over time mood diary to incentivize participation. The authors declare that there are no competing interests regarding the publication of this paper. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Comput Math Methods Med. Published online Jun Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract The present paper provides insight into an emerging research discipline called Psychoinformatics. Introduction 1 Current Research Methods in Psychology. Toward Psycho neuro informatics 2. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Challenges The core challenge for Psycho neuro informatics lies in its interdisciplinarity.

Conclusions The next decade will see an increasing number of research undertakings, residing squarely between computer science and psychology. Figure 2. Competing Interests The authors declare that there are no competing interests regarding the publication of this paper. References 1. Nederhof A. Methods of coping with social desirability bias: a review. European Journal of Social Psychology. Lin Y. Time distortion associated with smartphone addiction: identifying smartphone addiction via a mobile application App Journal of Psychiatric Research. Markowetz A. Psycho-informatics: big data shaping modern psychometrics.

Medical Hypotheses. Yarkoni T. Psychoinformatics: new horizons at the interface of the psychological and computing sciences. Current Directions in Psychological Science. Coolican H. Research Methods and Statistics in Psychology. McDaniel M. The validity of employment interviews: a comprehensive review and meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology. Harmon E. ACM; pp. Merchant G. Mobile practices in everyday life: popular digital technologies and schooling revisited. British Journal of Educational Technology. Wang D. Smartphone use in everyday life and travel.

Journal of Travel Research. Birnbaum M. Human research and data collection via the internet. Annual Review of Psychology. Dufau S. Smart phone, smart science: how the use of smartphones can revolutionize research in cognitive science. Knapp H.

Using pencil and paper, Internet and touch-tone phones for self-administered surveys: does methodology matter? Computers in Human Behavior. Csikszentmihalyi M. Optimal experience in work and leisure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Schobel J. A generic questionnaire framework supporting psychological studies with smartphone technologies. Lau S. Movement recognition using the accelerometer in smartphones. IEEE; pp.

Gravenhorst F. Towards a mobile galvanic skin response measurement system for mentally disordered patients. Gregoski M. Development and validation of a smartphone heart rate acquisition application for health promotion and wellness telehealth applications. International Journal of Telemedicine and Applications. Kwon S. Validation of heart rate extraction using video imaging on a built-in camera system of a smartphone. Ben Abdesslem F. Less is more: energy-efficient mobile sensing with senseless.

Montag C. Correlating personality and actual phone usage. Journal of Individual Differences. Wideberg J. A smartphone application to extract safety and environmental related information from the OBD-II interface of a car.

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Collected Experimental Papers: Volume I: Papers 1-11 Collected Experimental Papers: Volume I: Papers 1-11
Collected Experimental Papers: Volume I: Papers 1-11 Collected Experimental Papers: Volume I: Papers 1-11
Collected Experimental Papers: Volume I: Papers 1-11 Collected Experimental Papers: Volume I: Papers 1-11
Collected Experimental Papers: Volume I: Papers 1-11 Collected Experimental Papers: Volume I: Papers 1-11
Collected Experimental Papers: Volume I: Papers 1-11 Collected Experimental Papers: Volume I: Papers 1-11

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